144Qs

TEST

Ongoing dataset for big mc review

Revised outline

  1. Biochemistry
  2. Cells|Membranes
  3. Enzymes|Respiration
  4. DNA|RNA|Protein
  5. Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics
  6. Evolution
  7. Animal Systems
  8. Plant Systems
  9. Ecology

Link to a genetic code table

[qwiz dataset=”144Qs” qrecord_id=”dank-144Qs”]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Biochemistry” question_number=”1″ dataset_id=”144Qs|995ccc6720734″] In the diagram below, letter Y represents a(n)

[c]IHBob3NwaGF0ZSBncm91cA==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgcGhvc3BoYXRlIGdyb3VwcyBjb25uZWN0IHRoZSBkZW94eXJpYm9zZSBzdWdhcnMsIGFuZCB0aGVzZSBzdWdhcnMgYXJlIHJlcHJlc2VudGVkIGFzIHBlbnRhZ29ucy4=[Qq]

[c]IGRlb3h5 cmlib3Nl[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gJiM4MjIwO1kmIzgyMjE7IHJlcHJlc2VudHMgYSBkZW94eXJpYm9zZSBzdWdhci4=[Qq]

[c]IG5pdHJvZ2Vub3VzIGJhc2U=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgbml0cm9nZW5vdXMgYmFzZXMgZm9ybSB0aGUgaW50ZXJuYWwgJiM4MjIwO3J1bmdzJiM4MjIxOyBvZiB0aGUgRE5BIGxhZGRlci7CoCAmIzgyMjA7WSYjODIyMTsgYW5kICYjODIyMDtYJiM4MjIxOyBtYWtlIHVwIHRoZSA=c2lkZXM=IG9mIHRoZSBsYWRkZXIuwqAgV2hhdCBtYWtlcyB1cCB0aGUgc2lkZXM/[Qq]

[c]IGFtaW5vIGFjaWQ=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBbWlubyBhY2lkcyBhcmUgbW9ub21lcnMgb2YgcHJvdGVpbiwgYW5kIHRoaXMgaXMgYSBtb2xlY3VsZSBvZiBETkEu[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”DNA|RNA|Protein” dataset_id=”144Qs|995277725cb34″ question_number=”2″] In the diagram below, letter X represents a(n)

[c]IHBob3NwaGF0 ZSBncm91cA==[Qq]

[f]IFdheSB0byBnby4gJiM4MjIwO1gmIzgyMjE7IHJlcHJlc2VudHMgYSBwaG9zcGhhdGUgZ3JvdXAu[Qq]

[c]IGRlb3h5cmlib3Nl[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBEZW94eXJpYm9zZSBpcyBvbmUgb2YgdGhlIHN1Z2FycyBpbiBETkEuICYjODIyMDtYJiM4MjIxOyBjb25uZWN0cyB0aGUgc3VnYXJzIChzaG93biBhdCAmIzgyMjA7WSYjODIyMTspIHRvZ2V0aGVyLg==[Qq]

[c]IG5pdHJvZ2Vub3VzIGJhc2U=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgbml0cm9nZW5vdXMgYmFzZXMgZm9ybSB0aGUgaW50ZXJuYWwgcnVuZ3Mgb2YgdGhlIEROQSBsYWRkZXIuICYjODIyMDtYJiM4MjIxOyAoYWxvbmcgd2l0aCAmIzgyMjA7WSYjODIyMTspIGlzIG9uIHRoZSBvdXRzaWRlIG9mIHRoZSBsYWRkZXIuIFdoYXQgbWFrZXMgdXAgdGhlIGxhZGRlcj8=[Qq]

[c]IGFtaW5vIGFjaWQ=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBbWlubyBhY2lkcyBhcmUgbW9ub21lcnMgb2YgcHJvdGVpbiwgYW5kIHRoaXMgaXMgYSBtb2xlY3VsZSBvZiBETkEu[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”DNA|RNA|Protein” dataset_id=”144Qs|9948227d98f34″ question_number=”3″] In the diagram below, letter Z represents a(n)

[c]IHBob3NwaGF0ZSBncm91cA==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgcGhvc3BoYXRlIGdyb3VwcyBhcmUgb24gdGhlIG91dHNpZGUgb2YgRE5BLg==[Qq]

[c]IGRlb3h5cmlib3Nl[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBEZW94eXJpYm9zZSBpcyB0aGUgc3VnYXIgb24gdGhlIG91dHNpZGUgb2YgRE5BLg==[Qq]

[c]IG5pdHJvZ2Vu b3VzIGJhc2U=[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCEgJiM4MjIwO1omIzgyMjE7IGlzIG9uZSBvZiB0aGUgZm91ciBuaXRyb2dlbm91cyBiYXNlcy4=[Qq]

[c]IGFtaW5vIGFjaWQ=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBbWlubyBhY2lkcyBhcmUgbW9ub21lcnMgb2YgcHJvdGVpbi4gVGhpcyBpcyBETkEu[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”DNA|RNA|Protein” dataset_id=”144Qs|993da84816f34″ question_number=”4″] In the diagram below, the bonds connecting G and C (guanine and cytosine) are ________ bonds.

[c]IGNvdmFsZW50[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBDb3ZhbGVudCBib25kcyBhcmUgdGhlIHN0cm9uZyBib25kcyBmb3JtZWQgd2hlbiBhdG9tcyBzaGFyZSBlbGVjdHJvbnMuIFRoZXkgbWFrZSB1cCBwcmV0dHkgbXVjaCBldmVyeSBib25kIGluIEROQSwgZXhjZXB0IHRoZSBtdWNoIHdlYWtlciBib25kcyBiZXR3ZWVuIEcgYW5kIEMuIFdoYXQgYXJlIHRob3NlIHdlYWtlciBib25kcyAod2hpY2ggcGxheSBhIGtleSByb2xlIGluIGludGVyYWN0aW9ucyBiZXR3ZWVuIHdhdGVyIG1vbGVjdWxlcykgY2FsbGVkPw==[Qq]

[c]IHBlcHRpZGU=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBQZXB0aWRlIGJvbmRzIGFyZSB0aGUgYm9uZHMgdGhhdCBob2xkIGFtaW5vIGFjaWRzIHRvZ2V0aGVyIGluIHByb3RlaW5zLiBUaGVyZSBhcmUgbm8gcGVwdGlkZSBib25kcyBpbiBETkEgKGJlY2F1c2UgaXQmIzgyMTc7cyBub3QgYSBwcm90ZWluLCBidXQgYSBudWNsZWljIGFjaWQpLg==[Qq]

[c]IGh5ZH JvZ2Vu[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCEgVGhlIGJvbmQgYmV0d2VlbiB0aGUgbml0cm9nZW5vdXMgYmFzZXMgQyBhbmQgRyAoY3l0b3NpbmUgYW5kIGd1YW5pbmUpIGFyZSBoeWRyb2dlbiBib25kcy4=[Qq]

[c]IGlvbmlj[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBJb25pYyBib25kcyBhcmUgdGhlIGJvbmRzIGZvcm1lZCB3aGVuIGF0b21zIHRyYWRlIGVsZWN0cm9ucy4gSW9uaWMgYm9uZHMgZG9uJiM4MjE3O3QgcGxheSBhIHJvbGUgaW4gRE5BJiM4MjE3O3Mgc3RydWN0dXJlLiBUaGUgYW5zd2VyIGlzIGEgbXVjaCB3ZWFrZXIgYm9uZDogdGhlIHR5cGUgdGhhdCBwbGF5cyBhIGtleSByb2xlIGluIGludGVyYWN0aW9ucyBiZXR3ZWVuIHdhdGVyIG1vbGVjdWxlcw==[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”DNA|RNA|Protein” dataset_id=”144Qs|99332e1294f34″ question_number=”5″] Which of the choices below correctly shows the sequence of processes that was carried out by the structure labeled “X” before it arrived at its current position?

[c]IENvbWJpbmluZyB3aXRoIGFuIGFtaW5vIGFjaWQgYW5kIHRoZW4gYmluZGluZyB0byBhbiBhbnRpY29kb24u[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBTdHJ1Y3R1cmUgWCBpcyBjYXJyeWluZyBhbiBhbWlubyBhY2lkLCBidXQgaXQmIzgyMTc7cyBiaW5kaW5nIHdpdGggYSBzZXF1ZW5jZSBvZiAzIGxldHRlcnMgb24gbVJOQS4gV2hhdCBhcmUgdGhvc2UgdGhyZWUgbGV0dGVyIHNlcXVlbmNlcyBjYWxsZWQ/[Qq]

[c]IEJpbmRpbmcgdG8gYW4gYW50aWNvZG9uIGFuZCB0aGVuIGNvbWJpbmluZyB3aXRoIGFuIGFtaW5vIGFjaWQu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLsKgU3RydWN0dXJlIFggaXMgY2Fycnlpbmc=IGFuIGFtaW5vIGFjaWQsIGFuZCBpdCYjODIxNztzIGJpbmRpbmcgd2l0aCBhIHNlcXVlbmNlIG9mIDMgbGV0dGVycyBvbiBtUk5BPyBXaGF0IGFyZSB0aG9zZSB0aHJlZSBsZXR0ZXIgc2VxdWVuY2VzIGNhbGxlZD8=[Qq]

[c]IEJpbmRpbmcgdG8gYSBjb2RvbiBhbmQgdGhlbiBjb21iaW5pbmcgd2l0aCBhbiBhbWlubyBhY2lkLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLCBidXQgeW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIHZlcnkgY2xvc2UuVGhlIHN0cnVjdHVyZSBhdCBYIGlzIGEgdFJOQSwgYW5kIGl0IGRvZXMgYmluZCB3aXRoIGJvdGggYW4gYW1pbm8gYWNpZCBhbmQgYSBjb2Rvbi4gWW91IGp1c3QgbmVlZCB0byBnZXQgdGhlIHNlcXVlbmNlIG9mIGV2ZW50cyByaWdodC4=[Qq]

[c]IENvbWJpbmluZyB3aXRoIGFuIGFtaW5vIGFjaWQg YW5kIHRoZW4gYmluZGluZyB0byBhIGNvZG9uLg==[Qq]

[f]IENvcnJlY3QhIFRoZSBzdHJ1Y3R1cmUgYXQgWCBpcyBhIHRSTkEuIEl0IGZpcnN0IGJpbmRzIHdpdGggYW4gYW1pbm8gYWNpZCwgYW5kIHRoZW4gaXQgYmluZHMgd2l0aCBhIGNvZG9uIG9uIHRoZSBtUk5BLg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”DNA|RNA|Protein” dataset_id=”144Qs|9928b3dd12f34″ question_number=”6″] Which process is occurring below?

[c]IEROQSByZXBsaWNhdGlvbg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBJZiB0aGlzIHdlcmUgRE5BIHJlcGxpY2F0aW9uLCB5b3UmIzgyMTc7ZCBzZWUgYSByZXBsaWNhdGlvbiBmb3JrLCBudWNsZW90aWRlcywgYW5kIGFsbCB0eXBlcyBvZiBlbnp5bWVzLiBIZXJlIHdoYXQgeW91IHNlZSBpcyBhIHJpYm9zb21lLCBtUk5BLCBhbmQgYSB0Uk5BIGNhcnJ5aW5nIGFuIGFtaW5vIGFjaWQuIFdoYXQgcHJvY2VzcyBhcmUgdGhlc2UgaW52b2x2ZWQgd2l0aD8=[Qq]

[c]IHRyYW5zY3JpcHRpb24gb2YgRE5BIGludG8gUk5B[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBJZiB0aGlzIHdlcmUgdHJhbnNjcmlwdGlvbiBvZiBETkEgaW50byBSTkEsIHlvdSYjODIxNztkIHNlZSBETkEsIFJOQSwgYW5kIGVuenltZXMgbGlrZSBSTkEgcG9seW1lcmFzZS7CoMKgSGVyZSB3aGF0IHlvdSBzZWUgaXMgYSByaWJvc29tZSwgbVJOQSwgYW5kIGEgdFJOQSBjYXJyeWluZyBhbiBhbWlubyBhY2lkLiBXaGF0IHByb2Nlc3MgYXJlIHRoZXNlIGludm9sdmVkIHdpdGg/[Qq]

[c]IHRyYW5zY3JpcHRpb24gb2YgUk5BIGludG8gcHJvdGVpbg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUcmFuc2NyaXB0aW9uIGludm9sdmVzIGNoYW5naW5nIEROQSBpbmZvcm1hdGlvbiBpbnRvIFJOQSBpbmZvcm1hdGlvbi4gSGVyZSB3aGF0IHlvdSBzZWUgaXMgYSByaWJvc29tZSwgbVJOQSwgYW5kIGEgdFJOQSBjYXJyeWluZyBhbiBhbWlubyBhY2lkLiBXaGF0IHByb2Nlc3MgYXJlIHRoZXNlIGludm9sdmVkIHdpdGg/[Qq]

[c]IHRyYW5zbGF0aW9uIG9mIF JOQSBpbnRvIHByb3RlaW4=[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCEgVGhlIGltYWdlIGFib3ZlIHNob3dzIGEgcmlib3NvbWUgdHJhbnNsYXRpbmcgUk5BIGluZm9ybWF0aW9uIGludG8gcHJvdGVpbi4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”DNA|RNA|Protein” dataset_id=”144Qs|991cea60e0b34″ question_number=”7″] The structure labeled “X” below is a(n)

[c]IHBvbHlwZXB0aWRl[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBIHBvbHlwZXB0aWRlIGlzIGEgY2hhaW4gb2YgYW1pbm8gYWNpZHMsIGNvbm5lY3RlZCBieSBwZXB0aWRlIGJvbmRzLiBBYm92ZSwgYWxsIHlvdSBzZWUgaXMgb25lIGFtaW5vIGFjaWQgYXR0YWNoZWQgdG8gc3RydWN0dXJlIFguIER1cmluZyBwcm90ZWluIHN5bnRoZXNpcywgd2hhdCBtb2xlY3VsZSBicmluZ3MgYW1pbm8gYWNpZHMgdG8gdGhlIHJpYm9zb21lPw==[Qq]

[c]IHRS TkE=[Qq]

[f]IFRlcnJpZmljISAmIzgyMjA7WCYjODIyMTsgaXMgYSB0Uk5BLg==[Qq]

[c]IG1STkE=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgbVJOQSBpcyB0aGUgc2luZ2xlIHN0cmFuZGVkIG51Y2xlaWMgYWNpZCB3aXRoIGl0cyA1JiM4MjQyOyBhbmQgMyYjODI0MjsgZW5kcyBsYWJlbGVkLsKgJiM4MjIwO1gmIzgyMjE7IGlzIHdoYXQgYnJpbmdzIGFtaW5vIGFjaWRzIHRvIHRoZSBtUk5BIGF0IHRoZSByaWJvc29tZS4=[Qq]

[c]IHJSTkE=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgclJOQSBpcyB3aGF0IG1ha2VzIHVwIHRoZSByaWJvc29tZS4gJiM4MjIwO1gmIzgyMjE7IGlzIHdoYXQgYnJpbmdzIGFtaW5vIGFjaWRzIHRvIHRoZSBtUk5BIGF0IHRoZSByaWJvc29tZS4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”DNA|RNA|Protein” dataset_id=”144Qs|99108be1b5734″ question_number=”8″] To answer this question, you’ll need access to a genetic code table (clicking on the preceding link will open one up in a new tab). The third amino acid that would result from the process below would be

[c]IGd1YW5pbmU=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZb3UgY2FuIGZpbmQgdGhlIDNyZCBhbWlubyBhY2lkIGJ5IGlkZW50aWZ5aW5nIHRoZSB0aGlyZCBjb2Rvbi4gSXQmIzgyMTc7cyBVQUMuIFdoZW4geW91IGxvb2sgdXAgVUFDIGluIGHCoA==Z2VuZXRpYyBjb2RlIHRhYmxl[Qq], what amino acid do you get?

[c]IHR5cm 9zaW5l[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gVGhlIDNyZCBjb2RvbiBpcyBVQUMsIHdoaWNoIGlzIHRyYW5zbGF0ZWQgaW50byB0aGUgYW1pbm8gYWNpZCB0eXJvc2luZS4=[Qq]

[c]IGN5c3RlaW5l[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZb3UgY2FuIGZpbmQgdGhlIDNyZCBhbWlubyBhY2lkIGJ5IGlkZW50aWZ5aW5nIHRoZSB0aGlyZCBjb2Rvbi4gSXQmIzgyMTc7cyBVQUMuIFdoZW4geW91IGxvb2sgdXAgVUFDIGluIGE=Z2VuZXRpYyBjb2RlIHRhYmxl[Qq], what amino acid do you get?

[c]IHByb2xpbmU=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZb3UgY2FuIGZpbmQgdGhlIDNyZCBhbWlubyBhY2lkIGJ5IGlkZW50aWZ5aW5nIHRoZSB0aGlyZCBjb2Rvbi4gSXQmIzgyMTc7cyBVQUMuIFdoZW4geW91IGxvb2sgdXAgVUFDIGluIGE=Z2VuZXRpYyBjb2RlIHRhYmxl[Qq], what amino acid do you get?

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”DNA|RNA|Protein” dataset_id=”144Qs|990611ac33734″ question_number=”9″] Transcription converts

[c]IFJOQSBpbnRvIHByb3RlaW4u[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiA=VHJhbnNsYXRpb24=wqAgY29udmVydHMgaW5mb3JtYXRpb24gaW4gUk5BIGludG8gc2VxdWVuY2VzIG9mIGFtaW5vIGFjaWRzLCB3aGljaCBtYWtlIHVwIHByb3RlaW4uIFdoYXQgZG9lcyB0cmFuc2NyaXB0aW9uIGRvPw==[Qq]

[c]IHByb3RlaW4gaW50byBSTkEu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGVyZSYjODIxNztzIG5vIGJpb2xvZ2ljYWwgcHJvY2VzcyB0aGF0IG1vdmVzIGZyb20gcHJvdGVpbiB0byBSTkEu[Qq]

[c]IEROQSBpbn RvIFJOQQ==[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gVHJhbnNjcmlwdGlvbiBjb252ZXJ0cyBETkEgaW50byBSTkEu[Qq]

[c]IGNvZG9uIHNlcXVlbmNlcyBpbnRvIGFtaW5vIGFjaWQgc2VxdWVuY2Vz[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBDb2RvbiBzZXF1ZW5jZXMgYXJlIHRyYW5zbGF0ZWQgaW50byBhbWlubyBhY2lkIHNlcXVlbmNlcyBkdXJpbmcgdHJhbnNsYXRpb24uIFdoYXQgaGFwcGVucyBkdXJpbmcgdHJhbnNjcmlwdGlvbj8=[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”DNA|RNA|Protein” dataset_id=”144Qs|98fb9776b1734″ question_number=”10″] In eukaryotic cells, transcription moves information from ________ to _________.

[c]IHRoZSBudWNsZXVzICYjODIz MDsgdGhlIGN5dG9wbGFzbQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5pY2Ugam9iLsKgSW4gZXVrYXJ5b3RpYyBjZWxscywgdHJhbnNjcmlwdGlvbiBtb3ZlcyBpbmZvcm1hdGlvbiBmcm9tIHRoZSBudWNsZXVzIHRvIHRoZSA=Y3l0b3BsYXNtLg==[Qq]

[c]IHJpYm9zb21lcyAmIzgyMzA7IHByb3RlaW5z[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgY29ubmVjdGlvbiBiZXR3ZWVuIHJpYm9zb21lcyBhbmQgcHJvdGVpbnMgaXMgbW9yZSByZWxhdGVkIHRvIHRyYW5zbGF0aW9uLiBJbiBhbnkgY2FzZSwgcmlib3NvbWVzIGRvbiYjODIxNzt0IGhhdmUgaW5mb3JtYXRpb24sIHRoZXkgdHJhbnNsYXRlIGl0LiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50OiB0cmFuc2NyaXB0aW9uIGludm9sdmVzIEROQSwgd2hpY2ggbWFrZXMgdXAgY2hyb21vc29tZXMuIFdoZXJlIGFyZSB0aG9zZSBjaHJvbW9zb21lcyBmb3VuZD8=[Qq]

[c]IHRoZSBjeXRvcGxhc20gJiM4MjMwOy4gdGhlIG51Y2xldXM=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBEdXJpbmcgbWFueSBjZWxsIHNpZ25hbGluZyBwcm9jZXNzZXMsIGluZm9ybWF0aW9uIG1vdmVzIGZyb20gdGhlIGN5dG9wbGFzbSB0byB0aGUgbnVjbGV1cy4gQnV0IG5vdCBpbiB0cmFuc2NyaXB0aW9uLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50OiB0cmFuc2NyaXB0aW9uIGludm9sdmVzIEROQSwgd2hpY2ggbWFrZXMgdXAgY2hyb21vc29tZXMuIFdoZXJlIGFyZSB0aG9zZSBjaHJvbW9zb21lcyBmb3VuZD8=[Qq]

[c]IGNvZG9uIHNlcXVlbmNlcyAmIzgyMzA7IGFtaW5vIGFjaWQgc2VxdWVuY2Vz[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgYSBnb29kIGRlZmluaXRpb24gZm9yIHRoZSBpbmZvcm1hdGlvbiB0cmFuc2ZlciB0aGF0IGhhcHBlbnMgZHVyaW5nIA==dHJhbnNsYXRpb24=IChvciBwcm90ZWluIHN5bnRoZXNpcykuwqBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50OiB0cmFuc2NyaXB0aW9uIGludm9sdmVzIEROQSwgd2hpY2ggbWFrZXMgdXAgY2hyb21vc29tZXMuIFdoZXJlIGFyZSB0aG9zZSBjaHJvbW9zb21lcyBmb3VuZD8=[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”DNA|RNA|Protein” dataset_id=”144Qs|98f14281edb34″ question_number=”11″] In eukaryotic cells, translation moves information from ________ to _________.

[c]IHRoZSBudWNsZXVzICYjODIzMDsgdGhlIGN5dG9wbGFzbQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUcmFuc2NyaXB0aW9uIGlzIHRoZSBwcm9jZXNzIHRoZSBtb3ZlcyBpbmZvcm1hdGlvbiBmcm9tIHRoZSBudWNsZXVzIHRvIHRoZSBjeXRvcGxhc20u[Qq]

[c]IHJpYm9zb21lcyAmIzgyMzA7IHByb3RlaW5z[Qq]

[f]IE5vLCBidXQgeW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIG9uIHRoZSByaWdodCB0cmFjay4gUmlib3NvbWVzIGFyZSB0aGUgdHJhbnNsYXRvcnMsIGJ1dCB0aGV5IGRvbiYjODIxNzt0IHByb3ZpZGUgdGhlIGluZm9ybWF0aW9uIHRoYXQgZ2V0cyB0cmFuc2xhdGVkLiBUaGF0IGluZm9ybWF0aW9uIGlzIGluIG1STkEsIGFuZCBpdHMgaW4gMyBiYXNlcyB1bml0cy4gV2hhdCBhcmUgdGhvc2UgdW5pdHMgY2FsbGVkPw==[Qq]

[c]IHRoZSBjeXRvcGxhc20gJiM4MjMwOy4gdGhlIG51Y2xldXM=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBEdXJpbmcgbWFueSBjZWxsIHNpZ25hbGluZyBwcm9jZXNzZXMsIGluZm9ybWF0aW9uIG1vdmVzIGZyb20gdGhlIGN5dG9wbGFzbSB0byB0aGUgbnVjbGV1cy4gQnV0IG5vdCBpbiB0cmFuc2xhdGlvbi4gQ2hvb3NlIGFub3RoZXIgYW5zd2VyIG5leHQgdGltZSB5b3Ugc2VlIHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24u[Qq]

[c]IGNvZG9uIHNlcXVlbmNlcyAmIzgyMz A7IGFtaW5vIGFjaWQgc2VxdWVuY2Vz[Qq]

[f]IEZhYnVsb3VzLiBUcmFuc2xhdGlvbiBtb3ZlcyBpbmZvcm1hdGlvbiBmcm9tIA==Y29kb24gc2VxdWVuY2VzIHRvIA==YW1pbm8gYWNpZCBzZXF1ZW5jZXM=Lg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”DNA|RNA|Protein” dataset_id=”144Qs|98e6c84c6bb34″ question_number=”12″] At stage I in the diagram below, the intron-free sequence of DNA would be

[c]IFRBQyBUQUMgR0dDIENUQyBDVEcgQ0NUIEdHRyBHR0EgQ1RBIEFDVA==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgaG93IHRvIGRvIHRoaXMuIFdyaXRlIG91dCB0aGUgbVJOQSAoc2hvd24gYXQgc3RhZ2UgSUkpLiBUaGVuIHVzZSB0aGUgYmFzZSBwYWlyaW5nIHJ1bGVzIGJldHdlZW4gUk5BIGFuZCBETkEgdG8gZmlndXJlIG91dCB0aGUgRE5BOiBBIGJvbmRzIHdpdGggVCwgVSB3aXRowqAgQSwgQyB3aXRoIEcsIGFuZCBHIHdpdGggQw==[Qq]

[c]IFRBQyBUQUMgR0dDIENUVCBDVEcgQ0NUIENDQyBHR0EgQ1RBIEFDVA==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgaG93IHRvIGRvIHRoaXMuIFdyaXRlIG91dCB0aGUgbVJOQSAoc2hvd24gYXQgc3RhZ2UgSUkpLiBUaGVuIHVzZSB0aGUgYmFzZSBwYWlyaW5nIHJ1bGVzIGJldHdlZW4gUk5BIGFuZCBETkEgdG8gZmlndXJlIG91dCB0aGUgRE5BOiBBIGJvbmRzIHdpdGggVCwgVSB3aXRowqAgQSwgQyB3aXRoIEcsIGFuZCBHIHdpdGggQw==[Qq]

[c]IFRBQyBUQUMgR0dDIENUVCBDVEcg Q0NUIEdHRyBHR0EgQ1RBIEFDVA==[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gWW91JiM4MjE3O3ZlIHVzZWQgdGhlwqB0aGUgYmFzZSBwYWlyaW5nIHJ1bGVzIGJldHdlZW4gUk5BIGFuZCBETkEgdG8gZmlndXJlIG91dCB0aGUgRE5BICggQSBib25kcyB3aXRoIFQsIFUgd2l0aMKgIEEsIEMgd2l0aCBHLCBhbmQgRyB3aXRoIEMp[Qq]

[c]IFRBQyBUQUMgR0dDIENUVCBDVEcgVFRUIEdHRyBHR0EgQ1RBIEFDVA==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgaG93IHRvIGRvIHRoaXMuIFdyaXRlIG91dCB0aGUgUk5BIChzaG93biBhdCBzdGFnZSBJSSkuIFRoZW4gdXNlIHRoZSBiYXNlIHBhaXJpbmcgcnVsZXMgYmV0d2VlbiBSTkEgYW5kIEROQSB0byBmaWd1cmUgb3V0IHRoZSBETkE6IEEgYm9uZHMgd2l0aCBULCBVIHdpdGjCoCBBLCBDIHdpdGggRywgYW5kIEcgd2l0aCBD[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”DNA|RNA|Protein” dataset_id=”144Qs|98dc4e16e9b34″ question_number=”13″] In the diagram below, step E directly results in the production of

[c]IG1lc3NlbmdlciBSTkE=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBTdGVwICYjODIyMDtFJiM4MjIxOyA=ZG9lcw==IHByb2R1Y2UgUk5BLCBidXQgdGhhdCBSTkEgaGFzIHRvIGJlIHByb2Nlc3NlZCBiZWZvcmUgaXQmIzgyMTc7cyByZWFkeSB0byBiZSBtZXNzZW5nZXIgUk5BIGFuZCByZWFkIGJ5IGEgcmlib3NvbWUuIFdoYXQgd291bGQgY29tZSA=YmVmb3JlIG1STkE/[Qq]

[c]IHByZS1tZXNz ZW5nZXIgUk5B[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gV2hhdCB5b3UgaGF2ZSBhZnRlciAmIzgyMjA7RSYjODIyMTsgaXMgYSByYXcgUk5BIHRyYW5zY3JpcHQgY2FsbGVkIHByZS1tUk5BLiBJdCBzdGlsbCBoYXMgdG8gYmUgcHJvY2Vzc2VkIGJlZm9yZSBpdCBjYW4gYmUgbVJOQSwgcmVhZHkgdG8gYmUgcmVhZCBieSBhIHJpYm9zb21lLg==[Qq]

[c]IGEgcG9seXBlcHRpZGUgY2hhaW4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBQb2x5cGVwdGlkZSBjaGFpbnMgYXJlIHNlcXVlbmNlcyBvZiBhbWlubyBhY2lkcywgYW5kIHRoYXQgaGFzIHRvIGRvIHdpdGggcHJvdGVpbnMuIEhlcmUsIHlvdXIgYW5zd2VyIGlzIGdvaW5nIHRvIGJlIHNvbWUgdHlwZSBvZiBSTkEu[Qq]

[c]IGNvbXBsZW1lbnRhcnkgRE5BIChjRE5BKQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBDb21wbGVtZW50YXJ5IEROQSBpcyB1c2VkIGluIGdlbmV0aWMgZW5naW5lZXJpbmcgdG8gcHJvZHVjZSBldWthcnlvdGljIEROQSB0aGF0IGNhbiBiZSBwbGFjZWQgaW5zaWRlIGJhY3RlcmlhbCBjZWxscyBmb3IgcmVwbGljYXRpb24sIHRyYW5zY3JpcHRpb24sIGFuZCB0cmFuc2xhdGlvbi4gV2hhdCB5b3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgbG9va2luZyBmb3IgaGVyZSBpcyB0aGUgZmlyc3QgcmVzdWx0IG9mIHRyYW5zY3JpcHRpb24u[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”DNA|RNA|Protein” dataset_id=”144Qs|98d1aea0a9734″ question_number=”14″] In the diagram below, an anti-codon is indicated by

[c]IGdyb3 VwIEg=[Qq]

[f]IE5pY2UhIEdyb3VwIEggaXMgYW4gYW50aSBjb2Rvbi4=[Qq]

[c]IHByb2R1Y3QgRw==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBHIGlzIG1STkEuIEFuIGFudGljb2RvbiBpcyBhIHNob3J0IHN0cmV0Y2ggb2YgUk5BIG9uIGEgdFJOQS5UaGUgYW50aWNvZG9uIGNvbXBsZW1lbnRzIGEgY29kb24uIEZpbmQgYSB0Uk5BLCBhbmQgeW91JiM4MjE3O2xsIGhhdmUgeW91ciBhbnN3ZXIu[Qq]

[c]IHN0cnVjdHVyZSBL[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBLIGlzIHRoZSByaWJvc29tZS7CoEFuIGFudGljb2RvbiBpcyBhIHNob3J0IHN0cmV0Y2ggb2YgUk5BIG9uIGEgdFJOQS4gVGhlIGFudGljb2RvbiBjb21wbGVtZW50cyBhIGNvZG9uLiBGaW5kIGEgdFJOQSwgYW5kIHlvdSYjODIxNztsbCBoYXZlIHlvdXIgYW5zd2VyLg==[Qq]

[c]IGJvbmQgSg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBCb25kICYjODIyMDtKJiM4MjIxOyBpcyBhIHBlcHRpZGUgYm9uZCwgYSBib25kIHRoYXQgaG9sZHMgcHJvdGVpbnMgdG9nZXRoZXIuwqBBbiBhbnRpY29kb24gaXMgYSBzaG9ydCBzdHJldGNoIG9mIFJOQSBvbiBhIHRSTkEuIFRoZSBhbnRpY29kb24gY29tcGxlbWVudHMgYSBjb2Rvbi4gRmluZCBhIHRSTkEsIGFuZCB5b3UmIzgyMTc7bGwgaGF2ZSB5b3VyIGFuc3dlci4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|98c7346b27734″ question_number=”15″] The giant Pacific Octopus can lay up to 100,000 eggs (each about the size of a grain of rice). All the eggs have been fertilized with sperm from the same father. From the list below, the process that does not contribute to genetic diversity in the offspring is

[c]IGNyb3NzaW5nLW92ZXIgZHVyaW5nIHByb3BoYXNlIDEu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBDcm9zc2luZyBvdmVyIG9jY3VycyBkdXJpbmcgbWVpb3Npcy4gSXQgaW52b2x2ZXMgbWl4aW5nIG9mIG1hdGVybmFsIGFuZCBwYXRlcm5hbCBhbGxlbGVzLCBhbmQgaXQmIzgyMTc7cyBhIG1ham9yIHNvdXJjZSBvZiB2YXJpYXRpb24uIFdoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBvbiB0aGUgbGlzdCB0aGF0IHdvdWxkIA==ZGVjcmVhc2U=IHZhcmlhdGlvbj8=[Qq]

[c]IEROQSByZXBhaXIgZHVyaW5nIHRoZSBTIHBo YXNlIHRoYXQgcHJlY2VkZXMgbWVpb3Npcy4=[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gRE5BIHJlcGFpciB3aWxsIHRha2UgbXV0YXRpb25zIGFuZCBlbGltaW5hdGUgdGhlbSwgd2hpY2ggcmVkdWNlcyBnZW5ldGljIGRpdmVyc2l0eS4=[Qq]

[c]IHJhbmRvbSBhc3NvcnRtZW50IG9mIG1hdGVybmFsIGFuZCBwYXRlcm5hbCBjaHJvbW9zb21lcyBhc3NvY2lhdGVkIHdpdGggbWV0YXBoYXNlIDEgYW5kIGFuYXBoYXNlIDE=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBSYW5kb20gYXNzb3J0bWVudCBvZiBtYXRlcm5hbCBhbmQgcGF0ZXJuYWwgY2hyb21vc29tZXMgKGluZGVwZW5kZW50IGFzc29ydG1lbnQpIHByb2R1Y2VzIGNocm9tb3NvbWFsIGNvbWJpbmF0aW9ucyB0aGF0IGFyZSBicmFuZCBuZXcmIzgyMzA7VGhpcyBpcyBhIG1ham9yIHNvdXJjZSBvZiB2YXJpYXRpb24uwqBXaGF0JiM4MjE3O3Mgb24gdGhlIGxpc3QgdGhhdCB3b3VsZCA=ZGVjcmVhc2U=IHZhcmlhdGlvbj8=[Qq]

[c]IHJhbmRvbSBmZXJ0aWxpemF0aW9uIG9mIGdhbWV0ZXMgdGhhdCBmb2xsb3dzIG1laW9zaXM=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBSYW5kb20gZmVydGlsaXphdGlvbiBvZiBnYW1ldGVzIGluY3JlYXNlcyB2YXJpYXRpb24sIGJ5IGNvbWJpbmluZyB0aGUgZ2VuZXMgb2YgdW5yZWxhdGVkIG1hdGVzLsKgV2hhdCYjODIxNztzIG9uIHRoZSBsaXN0IHRoYXQgd291bGQgZGVjcmVhc2U=IHZhcmlhdGlvbj8=[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|98bbdab12ff34″ question_number=”16″] Diagrams A, B and C below represent stages of cell division from the same organism. One of the three shows the first division of meiosis. Another one shows the second division of meiosis, and one shows division by mitosis.

What is the diploid number of chromosomes for this organism?

[c]IDI=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBEaXBsb2lkIG1lYW5zICYjODIyMDt0d28gc2V0cy4mIzgyMjE7IFRoZSBkaXBsb2lkIG51bWJlciBjYW4mIzgyMTc7dCBiZSB0d28sIGJlY2F1c2UgdGhlcmUgYXJlIEZPVVIgY2hyb21vc29tZXMgaW4gZGlhZ3JhbXMmIzgyMjE7QSYjODIyMTsgYW5kICYjODIyMDtDJiM4MjIxO8KgICh3aGljaCBpcyBhIGhpbnQgYXMgdG8gd2hhdCB0aGUgYW5zd2VyIGlzKS4=[Qq]

[c]ID Q=[Qq]

[f]IFllcy7CoERpcGxvaWQgbWVhbnMgJiM4MjIwO3R3byBzZXRzLCYjODIyMTsgYW5kIHlvdSBjYW4gc2VlIHR3byBzZXRzIG9mIGNocm9tb3NvbWVzIGluICYjODIyMDtBJiM4MjIxOyBhbmQgJiM4MjIwO0MuJiM4MjIxOw==[Qq]

[c]IDY=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBOb25lIG9mIHRoZSBjZWxscyBhYm92ZSBoYXMgc2l4IGNocm9tb3NvbWVzLiBSZW1lbWJlciB0aGF0IGRpcGxvaWQgbWVhbnMgJiM4MjIwO3R3byBzZXRzLiYjODIyMTsgVGFrZSBhIGdvb2QgbG9vayBhdCB0aGUgZGlhZ3JhbSwgZmluZCBhIGNlbGwgd2l0aCB0d28gc2V0cyBvZiBjaHJvbW9zb21lcywgZG8gc29tZSBjb3VudGluZywgYW5kIHlvdSYjODIxNztsbCBoYXZlIHlvdXIgYW5zd2VyLg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|98b13b3aefb34″ question_number=”17″] Diagrams A, B and C below represent stages of cell division from the same organism. One of the three shows the first division of meiosis. Another one shows the second division of meiosis, and one shows division by mitosis.

Which diagram shows a type of cell division that, in a multicellular organism, would be used for growth and repair.

[c]IE E=[Qq]

[f]IFllcyEgJiM4MjIwO0EmIzgyMjE7IGxvb2tzIGxpa2UgbWl0b3NpcyAobWV0YXBoYXNlLCB0byBiZSBwcmVjaXNlKSwgd2hpY2ggaXMgdXNlZCBmb3IgZ3Jvd3RoIGFuZCByZXBhaXIgaW4gZXVrYXJ5b3RpYyBvcmdhbmlzbXMu[Qq]

[c]IEI=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBbGwgb2YgdGhlc2UgY2VsbHMgYXJlIGZyb20gdGhlIHNhbWUgb3JnYW5pc20uIEluIGNlbGwgJiM4MjIwO0IsJiM4MjIxOyB0aGVyZSBhcmUgb25seSBoYWxmIG9mIHRoZSBjaHJvbW9zb21lcyBwcmVzZW50ICh0d28gYXMgb3Bwb3NlZCB0byBmb3VyKS4gVGhhdCBtYWtlcyBCIGxvb2sgbGlrZSBtZWlvc2lzLCB3aGljaCBpcyB1c2VkIGZvciByZXByb2R1Y3Rpb24sIG5vdCBncm93dGggYW5kIHJlcGFpci4=[Qq]

[c]IEM=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBJbiBjZWxsIEIsIGl0IGxvb2tzIGxpa2UgaG9tb2xvZ291cyBwYWlycyBhcmUgbGluaW5nIHVwIGFuZCBhcmUgYWJvdXQgdG8gYmUgc3BsaXQgYXBhcnQuIFRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBzb21ldGhpbmcgdGhhdCBoYXBwZW5zIGluIG1laW9zaXMsIHdoaWNoIGlzIHVzZWQgZm9yIHJlcHJvZHVjdGlvbiwgbm90IGdyb3d0aCBhbmQgcmVwYWlyLg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|98a69bc4af734″ question_number=”18″] The image below shows stages of cell division, but not necessarily in the correct order. Which of the following lists the correct sequence?

[c]IDEtMi0zLTQ=[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IDItMS00LTM=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7dmUgY2hvc2VuICYjODIyMDsyJiM4MjIxOyBhcyB0aGUgZmlyc3Qgc3RhZ2UuIEJ1dCAmIzgyMjA7MiYjODIyMTsgc2hvd3MgY2hyb21vc29tZXMgY29uZGVuc2luZy4gQmVmb3JlIHRoYXQsIHRoZSBudWNsZWFyIG1lbWJyYW5lIGRpc2ludGVncmF0ZXMuIEZpbmQgYSBjZWxsIHdoZXJlIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBoYXBwZW5pbmcsIGFuZCByZW1lbWJlciB0aGF0IGZpcnN0IHN0ZXAgdGhlIG5leHQgdGltZSB5b3Ugc2VlIHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24u[Qq]

[c]IDQtMi0zLTE=[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IDMtMi 00LTE=[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCEgTmljZSBqb2IgaWRlbnRpZnlpbmcgdGhlIGNvcnJlY3Qgc2VxdWVuY2Ugb2YgZXZlbnRzOiBudWNsZWFyIG1lbWJyYW5lIGRpc2ludGVncmF0aW9uLCBjaHJvbW9zb21lIGNvbmRlbnNhdGlvbiwgYWxpZ25tZW50IGluIHRoZSBtaWRkbGUsIHRoZW4gc2VwYXJhdGlvbi4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|989b8c8c34734″ question_number=”19″] The diagram below shows the amount of DNA per cell in a dividing cell. Which roman numeral shows the amount of DNA in an unfertilized egg cell?

[c]IEk=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgaG93IHRvIHRoaW5rIGFib3V0IHRoaXMuIFlvdSYjODIxNztyZSBpbnN0cnVjdGVkIHRvIGxvb2sgZm9yIHRoZSBhbW91bnQgb2YgRE5BIGluIGFuIA==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[Qq]

[c]IElJSQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgaG93IHRvIHRoaW5rIGFib3V0IHRoaXMuIFlvdSYjODIxNztyZSBpbnN0cnVjdGVkIHRvIGxvb2sgZm9yIHRoZSBhbW91bnQgb2YgRE5BIGluIGFuIA==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[Qq]

[c]IElW[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgaG93IHRvIHRoaW5rIGFib3V0IHRoaXMuIFlvdSYjODIxNztyZSBpbnN0cnVjdGVkIHRvIGxvb2sgZm9yIHRoZSBhbW91bnQgb2YgRE5BIGluIGFuIA==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[Qq]

[c]IF ZJ[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|988fc31002334″ question_number=”20″] The diagram below shows the amount of DNA per cell in a dividing cell. Which roman numeral shows the amount of DNA in a cell during prophase 1 of meiosis I?

[c]IEk=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgdG9vIGVhcmx5IGluIHRoZSBwcm9jZXNzLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgaG93IHRvIHRoaW5rIGFib3V0IHRoaXMuIEZyb20gdGhlIHF1ZXN0aW9uLCB5b3Uga25vdyB0aGF0IHRoaXMgaXMgbWVpb3Npcy4gTWVpb3NpcyBiZWdpbnMgYnkgZG91Ymxpbmcgb2YgRE5BIChzaG93biBhdCAmIzgyMjA7SUkmIzgyMjE7KSwgdGhlbiBkaXZpZGVzIHRoZSBETkEgdHdpY2UuIFByb3BoYXNlIDEgd291bGQgYmUgYWZ0ZXIgdGhlIEROQSBkb3VibGluZywgYnV0IGJlZm9yZSB0aGUgZmlyc3QgZGl2aXNpb24uIEZpZ3VyZSBpdCBvdXQgZnJvbSB0aGVyZS4=[Qq]

[c]IElJ SQ==[Qq]

[f]IEZhYnVsb3VzLiBQcm9waGFzZSAxIHdvdWxkIGJlIGFmdGVyIHRoZSBkb3VibGluZyBvZiBETkEgaW4gaW50ZXJwaGFzZSBJLCBidXQgYmVmb3JlIHRoZSBjZWxsIGRpdmlzaW9uIG9mIG1laW9zaXMgSS4=[Qq]

[c]IElW[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgdG9vIGxhdGUgaW4gdGhlIHByb2Nlc3MuIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBob3cgdG8gdGhpbmsgYWJvdXQgdGhpcy4gRnJvbSB0aGUgcXVlc3Rpb24sIHlvdSBrbm93IHRoYXQgdGhpcyBpcyBtZWlvc2lzLiBNZWlvc2lzIHN0YXJ0cyB3aXRoIGRvdWJsaW5nIG9mIEROQSAoc2hvd24gYXQgJiM4MjIwO0lJJiM4MjIxOyksIHRoZW4gZGl2aWRlcyB0aGUgRE5BIHR3aWNlLiBQcm9waGFzZSAxIHdvdWxkIGJlIGFmdGVyIHRoZSBETkEgZG91YmxpbmcsIGJ1dCBiZWZvcmUgdGhlIGZpcnN0IGRpdmlzaW9uLiBGaWd1cmUgaXQgb3V0IGZyb20gdGhlcmUu[Qq]

[c]IFZJ[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgdG9vIGxhdGUgaW4gdGhlIHByb2Nlc3MuIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBob3cgdG8gdGhpbmsgYWJvdXQgdGhpcy4gRnJvbSB0aGUgcXVlc3Rpb24sIHlvdSBrbm93IHRoYXQgdGhpcyBpcyBtZWlvc2lzLiBNZWlvc2lzIHN0YXJ0cyB3aXRoIGRvdWJsaW5nIG9mIEROQSwgdGhlbiBkaXZpZGVzIHRoZSBETkEgdHdpY2UuIFByb3BoYXNlIDEgd291bGQgYmUgYWZ0ZXIgdGhlIEROQSBkb3VibGluZywgYnV0IGJlZm9yZSB0aGUgZmlyc3QgZGl2aXNpb24uIEZpZ3VyZSBpdCBvdXQgZnJvbSB0aGVyZS4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|9884d91845734″ question_number=”21″] The diagram below shows the amount of DNA per cell in a dividing cell. Which roman numeral would require the involvement of enzymes like DNA polymerase, helicase, and ligase?

[c]IE lJ[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCEgRW56eW1lcyBsaWtlIEROQSBwb2x5bWVyYXNlLCBoZWxpY2FzZSwgYW5kIGxpZ2FzZSB3b3VsZCBiZSBpbnZvbHZlZCBpbiBETkEgc3ludGhlc2lzIHRoYXQgaGFwcGVucyBkdXJpbmcgaW50ZXJwaGFzZSAxLCB3aGljaCBpcyBzaG93biBpbiBzdGVwICYjODIyMDtJSS4mIzgyMjE7[Qq]

[c]IElJSQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBdCAmIzgyMjA7SUlJJiM4MjIxOyB0aGUgbGluZSBpcyBmbGF0LCBpbmRpY2F0aW5nIHRoYXQgdGhlIGFtb3VudCBvZiBETkEgaXMgc3RheWluZyBjb25zdGFudCBvdmVyIHRpbWUuIFRoZSBlbnp5bWVzIG1lbnRpb25lZCBhYm92ZSBhcmUgYWxsIGludm9sdmVkIGluIEROQSBzeW50aGVzaXMuIFN5bnRoZXNpcyA=aW5jcmVhc2VzIHRoZSBhbW91bnQgb2YgRE5BLiBXaGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgdGhlIG9ubHkgbnVtYmVyIHRoYXQgc2hvd3MgdGhlIGFtb3VudCBvZiBETkEgZ29pbmcgdXA/[Qq]

[c]IElW[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBdCAmIzgyMjA7SVYmIzgyMjE7IHRoZSBsaW5lIGlzIGZsYXQsIGluZGljYXRpbmcgdGhhdCB0aGUgYW1vdW50IG9mIEROQSBpcyBzdGF5aW5nIGNvbnN0YW50IG92ZXIgdGltZS4gVGhlIGVuenltZXMgbWVudGlvbmVkIGFib3ZlIGFyZSBhbGwgaW52b2x2ZWQgaW4gRE5BIHN5bnRoZXNpcy4gU3ludGhlc2lzIA==aW5jcmVhc2VzIHRoZSBhbW91bnQgb2YgRE5BLiBXaGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgdGhlIG9ubHkgbnVtYmVyIHRoYXQgc2hvd3MgdGhlIGFtb3VudCBvZiBETkEgZ29pbmcgdXA/[Qq]

[c]IFY=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBdCAmIzgyMjA7ViYjODIyMTsgdGhlIGxpbmUgaXMgc2xvcGluZyBkb3dud2FyZCwgaW5kaWNhdGluZyB0aGF0IHRoZSBhbW91bnQgb2YgRE5BIGlzIGRlY3JlYXNpbmcgb3ZlciB0aW1lLlRoZSBlbnp5bWVzIG1lbnRpb25lZCBhYm92ZSBhcmUgYWxsIGludm9sdmVkIGluIEROQSBzeW50aGVzaXMuIFN5bnRoZXNpcyA=aW5jcmVhc2VzIHRoZSBhbW91bnQgb2YgRE5BLiBXaGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgdGhlIG9ubHkgbnVtYmVyIHRoYXQgc2hvd3MgdGhlIGFtb3VudCBvZiBETkEgZ29pbmcgdXA/[Qq]

[c]IFZJ[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBdCAmIzgyMjA7VkkmIzgyMjE7IHRoZSBsaW5lIGlzIGZsYXQsIGluZGljYXRpbmcgdGhhdCB0aGUgYW1vdW50IG9mIEROQSBpcyBzdGF5aW5nIGNvbnN0YW50IG92ZXIgdGltZS4gVGhlIGVuenltZXMgbWVudGlvbmVkIGFib3ZlIGFyZSBhbGwgaW52b2x2ZWQgaW4gRE5BIHN5bnRoZXNpcy4gU3ludGhlc2lzIA==aW5jcmVhc2VzIHRoZSBhbW91bnQgb2YgRE5BLiBXaGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgdGhlIG9ubHkgbnVtYmVyIHRoYXQgc2hvd3MgdGhlIGFtb3VudCBvZiBETkEgZ29pbmcgdXA/[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|98790f9c13334″ question_number=”22″] Assuming that the chromosomes shown in the germ cell on the top of the diagram represent one of the 22 homologous pairs of autosomes found in human beings, then which of the zygotes on the bottom row could develop into an individual with Down syndrome?

[c]IGHCoCDCoCDCoOKAg+KAgw==[Qq][c]IGLCoCDCoCDCoCDCoOKAg+KAgw==[Qq][c]IGPCoCDCoCDCoC DCoOKAg+KAgw==[Qq][c]IGQ=[Qq]
[f]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

Cg==[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|986ddb22d9f34″ question_number=”23″] Assuming that the chromosomes shown in the germ cell on the top of this diagram represent X chromosomes, then which of the zygotes on the bottom row could develop into an individual with Turner syndrome?

[c]IGHCoCDCoCDCoOKAg+KAgw==[Qq][c]IGLCoCDCoCDCoOKAg+KAgw==[Qq][c]IGPCoCDCoCDCoCDCoOKAg+KAgw==[Qq][c]IG Q=[Qq]
[f]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

Cg==[Qq]

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[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|9862a6a9a0b34″ question_number=”24″] Thryothorus ludovicianus, also known as the Carolina wren, has a white streak called a “supercilium” above its eye. The supercilium may extend well behind the eye, as shown below.

A family of wrens is found with a short supercilium that barely extends past the eye. To determine the type of inheritance that underlies supercilium length, a group of Carolina wrens was bred in captivity, with the following results.

In experiment 1, individuals with a long supercilium were bred together. All off spring had long supercilia.
In experiment 2, individuals with a short supercilium were bred together. All of the offspring had short supercilia.
In experiment 3, individuals with a short supercilium were bred with individuals with a long supercilium. All of the offspring had short supercilia.
In experiment 4, the short supercilia offspring from experiment three were test crossed with the true-breeding long supercilia offspring of experiment 1. Approximately 50% of the offspring had long supercilia, and 50% had short supercilia.

The data above are consistent with the theory that … If this theory is
correct, if the short offspring from experiment 3 are mated with each other the
offspring of that cross will be ….

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[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|9856b7ecb0334″ question_number=”25″] A family pedigree and a series of RFLPs for a rare genetic disease is shown below.

Which individual is a heterozygote?

[c]IDQ=[Qq]

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[c]ID U=[Qq]

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[c]IDg=[Qq]

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[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|98425884a5334″ question_number=”26″] A family pedigree and a series of RFLPs for a rare genetic disease is shown below.

Which individual is homozygous dominant?

[c]IDE=[Qq]

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[c]IDI=[Qq]

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[c]ID M=[Qq]

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[c]IDQ=[Qq]

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[c]IDU=[Qq]

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[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|98327bf3a3f34″ question_number=”27″]  Domestic chickens have been bred for many years to increase the number of eggs laid by the females. Chick breeders need to be able to identify female chicks on the day after hatching, as only the females need to be kept for laying eggs.

Unlike mammals, which use a sex determination system with X and Y chromosomes, in chickens the sex chromosomes are known as Z and W. Male chickens have two Z chromosomes (ZZ). Female chickens have one Z chromosome and one W chromosome (ZW).

Some genes for feather color and pattern in chickens are carried on the Z chromosome but not on the W chromosome. One such example is the gene for striped feathers (barring).

The phenotypes associated with the two alleles of the barring gene are shown in the table below

Allele Adult Phenotype Day old chick phenotype
B Barred (black feathers striped with white bars) Black body with a white spot on the head
b Non-barred (black feathers) Black body and head

The type of inheritance associated with barring is

[c]IGF1dG9zb21hbCByZWNlc3NpdmU=[Qq]

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[c]IHNleCBsaW5rZWQgcmVjZXNzaXZl[Qq]

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[c]IHNleCBsaW5rZW QgZG9taW5hbnQ=[Qq]

[f]IFdBWSBUTyBHTyEgQmFycmluZyBpcyBzZXggbGlua2VkIGFuZCBkb21pbmFudCE=[Qq]

[c]IG1pdG9jaG9uZHJpYWw=[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|982254e126334″ question_number=”28″]  Domestic chickens have been bred for many years to increase the number of eggs laid by the females. Chick breeders need to be able to identify female chicks on the day after hatching, as only the females need to be kept for laying eggs.

Unlike mammals, which use a sex determination system with X and Y chromosomes, in chickens the sex chromosomes are known as Z and W. Male chickens have two Z chromosomes (ZZ). Female chickens have one Z chromosome and one W chromosome (ZW).

Some genes for feather color and pattern in chickens are carried on the Z chromosome but not on the W chromosome. One such example is the gene for striped feathers (barring).

The phenotypes associated with the two alleles of the barring gene are shown in the table below

Allele Adult Phenotype Day old chick phenotype
B Barred (black feathers striped with white bars) Black body with a white spot on the head
b Non-barred (black feathers) Black body and head

An individual with genotype ZBZb will, as an adult, have which phenotype?

[c]IEJhcnJl ZCBtYWxl[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gQW4gaW5kaXZpZHVhbCB3aXRoIGdlbm90eXBlwqA=Wg==Qg==Wg==Yg==[Qq] will be a barred male (ZZ = male, and B is the allele for barring)

[c]IEJhcnJlZCBmZW1hbGU=[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IE5vbi1iYXJyZWQgZmVtYWxl[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IE5vbi1iYXJyZWQgbWFsZQ==[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|981094067bb34″ question_number=”29″]  Domestic chickens have been bred for many years to increase the number of eggs laid by the females. Chick breeders need to be able to identify female chicks on the day after hatching, as only the females need to be kept for laying eggs.

Unlike mammals, which use a sex determination system with X and Y chromosomes, in chickens the sex chromosomes are known as Z and W. Male chickens have two Z chromosomes (ZZ). Female chickens have one Z chromosome and one W chromosome (ZW).

Some genes for feather color and pattern in chickens are carried on the Z chromosome but not on the W chromosome. One such example is the gene for striped feathers (barring).

The phenotypes associated with the two alleles of the barring gene are shown in the table below

Allele Adult Phenotype Day old chick phenotype
B Barred (black feathers striped with white bars) Black body with a white spot on the head
b Non-barred (black feathers) Black body and head

An individual with genotype ZBW will, as an adult, have which phenotype?

[c]IEJhcnJlZCBtYWxl[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IEJhcnJlZC BmZW1hbGU=[Qq]

[f]IFRlcnJpZmljLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgY2xlYXJseSB1bmRlcnN0YW5kaW5nIGhvdyBzZXggZGV0ZXJtaW5hdGlvbiBhbmQgc2V4IGxpbmtlZCBhbGxlbGVzIHdvcmsgaW4gYmlyZHMh[Qq]

[c]IE5vbi1iYXJyZWQgZmVtYWxl[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IE5vbi1iYXJyZWQgbWFsZQ==[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|97f9010e17334″ question_number=”30″]  Domestic chickens have been bred for many years to increase the number of eggs laid by the females. Chick breeders need to be able to identify female chicks on the day after hatching, as only the females need to be kept for laying eggs.

Unlike mammals, which use a sex determination system with X and Y chromosomes, in chickens the sex chromosomes are known as Z and W. Male chickens have two Z chromosomes (ZZ). Female chickens have one Z chromosome and one W chromosome (ZW).

Some genes for feather color and pattern in chickens are carried on the Z chromosome but not on the W chromosome. One such example is the gene for striped feathers (barring).

The phenotypes associated with the two alleles of the barring gene are shown in the table below

Allele Adult Phenotype Day old chick phenotype
B Barred (black feathers striped with white bars) Black body with a white spot on the head
b Non-barred (black feathers) Black body and head

In cross between a barred female and a non-barred male, what percentage of the offspring will be non-barred females

[c]IDAl[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZb3UgaGF2ZSB0byB0cmVhdCB0aGlzIGxpa2UgYW55IGdlbmV0aWNzIHByb2JsZW1zIHRoYXQgaW52b2x2ZXMgc2V4IGxpbmthZ2UuIEhlcmUgYXJlIHRoZSBnZW5vdHlwZXM6IHRoZSBiYXJyZWQgZmVtYWxlIGlzwqA=Wg==Qg==[Qq]W. The non-barred male is ZbZb. Get a pencil, set up a Punnett square like the one below, and solve the problem (determining the proportion of each phenotype).

ZB W
Zb
Zb

Hold on to the answer until the next time you see the question. 

[c]IDI1JQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZb3UgaGF2ZSB0byB0cmVhdCB0aGlzIGxpa2UgYW55IGdlbmV0aWNzIHByb2JsZW1zIHRoYXQgaW52b2x2ZXMgc2V4IGxpbmthZ2UuIEhlcmUgYXJlIHRoZSBnZW5vdHlwZXM6IHRoZSBiYXJyZWQgZmVtYWxlIGlzwqA=Wg==Qg==[Qq]W. The non-barred male is ZbZb. Get a pencil, set up a Punnett square like the one below, and solve the problem (determining the proportion of each phenotype).

ZB W
Zb
Zb

Hold on to the answer until the next time you see the question. 

[c]IDUw JQ==[Qq]

[f]IFlvdSYjODIxNztyZSBleGhpYml0aW5nIG1hcnZlbG91cyBtYXN0ZXJ5IG9mIChwb3N0KSBNZW5kZWxpYW4gZ2VuZXRpY3MhIDUwJSBvZiB0aGUgb2Zmc3ByaW5nIGFyZSBub24tYmFycmVkIGZlbWFsZXMuIElmIHlvdSYjODIxNztyZSBsaWtlIG1lLCB5b3Ugc2V0IHVwIHRoaXMgY3Jvc3MuIEFsbCB0aGUgZmVtYWxlcyBhcmUgbm9uLWJhcnJlZCwgYW5kIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyA1MCUgb2YgdGhlIG9mZnNwcmluZy4=

Cg==Cg==Cg==Cg==
[Qq] ZB W
Zb
Zb

[c]IDc1JQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZb3UgaGF2ZSB0byB0cmVhdCB0aGlzIGxpa2UgYW55IGdlbmV0aWNzIHByb2JsZW1zIHRoYXQgaW52b2x2ZXMgc2V4IGxpbmthZ2UuIEhlcmUgYXJlIHRoZSBnZW5vdHlwZXM6IHRoZSBiYXJyZWQgZmVtYWxlIGlzwqA=Wg==Qg==[Qq]W. The non-barred male is ZbZb. Get a pencil, set up a Punnett square like the one below, and solve the problem (determining the proportion of each phenotype).

ZB W
Zb
Zb

Hold on to the answer until the next time you see the question. 

[c]IDEwMCU=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZb3UgaGF2ZSB0byB0cmVhdCB0aGlzIGxpa2UgYW55IGdlbmV0aWNzIHByb2JsZW1zIHRoYXQgaW52b2x2ZXMgc2V4IGxpbmthZ2UuIEhlcmUgYXJlIHRoZSBnZW5vdHlwZXM6IHRoZSBiYXJyZWQgZmVtYWxlIGlzwqA=Wg==Qg==[Qq]W. The non-barred male is ZbZb. Get a pencil, set up a Punnett square like the one below, and solve the problem (determining the proportion of each phenotype).

ZB W
Zb
Zb

Hold on to the answer until the next time you see the question. 

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|97eda7541fb34″ question_number=”31″]  In an experimental organism, the alleles for height and body color are linked on the same chromosome. Allele “T” results in a tall phenotype, while “t” results in a short phenotype. “B” results in a black body, while “b” results in brown. A test cross resulted in four types of offspring. The alleles and their position on their chromosomes for the two recombinant offspring are shown below.

Which of the following is a test cross that could have produced these results?

[c]IEE=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgaG93IHRvIHRoaW5rIGFib3V0IHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24uwqAgQSA=dGVzdA==IGNyb3NzIGlzIGFsd2F5cyB3aXRoIGFuIG9yZ2FuaXNtIHRoYXQgaXMgcmVjZXNzaXZlIGZvciBib3RoIGFsbGVsZXMuIFRoZXJlZm9yZSBvbmUgcGFyZW50IGlzIGdvaW5nIHRvIGJlIHRiLy90YiAod2hpY2ggc2hvdWxkIGxldCB5b3UgZWxpbWluYXRlIHR3byBvZiB0aGUgY2hvaWNlcyBhYm92ZSkuIEZvciB0aGUgb3RoZXIgcGFyZW50LCBjaG9vc2Ugb25lIHdob3NlIGFsbGVsZXMgYXJlIG9yZ2FuaXplZCBpbiBzdWNoIGEgd2F5IHRoYXQgY3Jvc3Npbmcgb3Zlcg==IHdpbGwgcHJvZHVjZSByZWNvbWJpbmFudCBnYW1ldGVzIHdpdGggYWxsZWxlcyB0Qi8gYW5kIC9UYi4gVGhlbiwgYWZ0ZXIgdGhlIHRlc3QgY3Jvc3MsIHRoZSByZWNvbWJpbmFudCBvZmZzcHJpbmcgd2lsbCBiZSB0Qi8vdGIgYW5kIFRiLy90Yi4=[Qq]

[c]IEI=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgaG93IHRvIHRoaW5rIGFib3V0IHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24uwqAgQSA=dGVzdA==IGNyb3NzIGlzIGFsd2F5cyB3aXRoIGFuIG9yZ2FuaXNtIHRoYXQgaXMgcmVjZXNzaXZlIGZvciBib3RoIGFsbGVsZXMuIFRoZXJlZm9yZSBvbmUgcGFyZW50IGlzIGdvaW5nIHRvIGJlIHRiLy90YiAod2hpY2ggc2hvdWxkIGxldCB5b3UgZWxpbWluYXRlIHR3byBvZiB0aGUgY2hvaWNlcyBhYm92ZSkuIEZvciB0aGUgb3RoZXIgcGFyZW50LCBjaG9vc2Ugb25lIHdob3NlIGFsbGVsZXMgYXJlIG9yZ2FuaXplZCBpbiBzdWNoIGEgd2F5IHRoYXQgY3Jvc3Npbmcgb3Zlcg==IHdpbGwgcHJvZHVjZSByZWNvbWJpbmFudCBnYW1ldGVzIHdpdGggYWxsZWxlcyB0Qi8gYW5kIC9UYi4gVGhlbiwgYWZ0ZXIgdGhlIHRlc3QgY3Jvc3MsIHRoZSByZWNvbWJpbmFudCBvZmZzcHJpbmcgd2lsbCBiZSB0Qi8vdGIgYW5kIFRiLy90Yi4=[Qq]

[c]IE M=[Qq]

[f]IENvcnJlY3QhIEEgY3Jvc3MgYmV0d2VlbiBUQi8vdGIgYW5kIHRiLy90YiB3aWxsIHJlc3VsdCBpbiB0aGUgdHdvIHJlY29tYmluYW50IG9mZnNwcmluZyBzaG93biBhYm92ZSwgYXMgd2VsbCBhcyB0d28gcGFyZW50YWwgdHlwZSBvZmZzcHJpbmcgKFRCLy90YiBhbmQgdGIvL3RiKS4=[Qq]

[c]IEQ=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLCBidXQgeW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIG9uIHRoZSByaWdodCB0cmFjay7CoCBZb3UgY29ycmVjdGx5IGlkZW50aWZpZWQgYSBjaG9pY2Ugd2hlcmUgb25lIHBhcmVudCBpcyBzdWl0YWJsZSB0byBiZSBhwqAgdGVzdCBjcm9zcyBwYXJlbnQgKHJlY2Vzc2l2ZSBmb3IgYm90aCBhbGxlbGVzOiB0Yi8vdGIpLiBGb3IgdGhlIG90aGVyIHBhcmVudCwgY2hvb3NlIHRoZSB3aG9zZSBhbGxlbGVzIGFyZSBvcmdhbml6ZWQgaW4gc3VjaCBhIHdheSB0aGF0IA==Y3Jvc3Npbmcgb3Zlcg==IHdpbGwgcHJvZHVjZSByZWNvbWJpbmFudCBnYW1ldGVzIHdpdGggYWxsZWxlcyB0Qi8gYW5kIC9UYi4gVGhlbiwgYWZ0ZXIgdGhlIHRlc3QgY3Jvc3MsIHRoZSByZWNvbWJpbmFudCBvZmZzcHJpbmcgd2lsbCBiZSB0Qi8vdGIgYW5kIFRiLy90Yi4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|97e20318abb34″ question_number=”32″] The diagram below shows some of the steps involved in cloning. Which of the statements below is true about letters X and Y?

[c]IExldHRlciBYIGlzIGEgc2V4IGNlbGwgcmVtb3ZlZCBmcm9tIGFuIGFkdWx0IGFuaW1hbC4gTGV0dGVyIFkgaXMgYSBudWNsZXVzIHJlbW92ZWQgZnJvbSBkaWZmZXJlbnRpYXRlZCBhbmltYWwgY2VsbC4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBMZXQmIzgyMTc7cyB0aGluayBhYm91dCBob3cgY2xvbmluZyB3b3Jrcy4gQSBzb21hdGljIGNlbGwgaXMgcmVtb3ZlZCBmcm9tIHRoZSBvcmdhbmlzbSB0aGF0IHlvdSB3YW50IHRvIGNsb25lLiBZb3UgcmVtb3ZlIHRoZSBudWNsZXVzIGZyb20gdGhpcyBkaWZmZXJlbnRpYXRlZCBjZWxsLCBhbmQgaW1wbGFudCBpdCBpbnRvIGFuIGVnZyBjZWxsIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBoYWQgaXRzIG51Y2xldXMgcmVtb3ZlZC4gVGhlbiB0aGUgcmVzdWx0aW5nIGVtYnJ5byBpcyBpbXBsYW50ZWQgaW50byB0aGUgdXRlcnVzIG9mIGEgZmVtYWxlIHNoZWVwICh3aGljaCBhY3RzIGFzIGEgc3Vycm9nYXRlIG1vdGhlciku

Cg==

U3R1ZHkgdGhlIGRpYWdyYW0gYWJvdmUgaW4gdGhlIGxpZ2h0IG9mIHRoaXMgZXhwbGFuYXRpb24sIGZpZ3VyZSBvdXQgd2hhdCBYIGFuZCBZIGFyZSwgYW5kIHlvdSBzaG91bGQgYmUgYWJsZSB0byBnZXQgdGhpcyBvbmUgcmlnaHQgbmV4dCB0aW1lLg==[Qq]

[c]IExldHRlciBYIGlzIGEgc2V4IGNlbGwgcmVtb3ZlZCBmcm9tIGFuIGFkdWx0IGFuaW1hbC4gTGV0dGVyIFkgaXMgYSBudWNsZXVzIHJlbW92ZWQgZnJvbSB1bmZlcnRpbGl6ZWQgZWdnIGNlbGwu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBMZXQmIzgyMTc7cyB0aGluayBhYm91dCBob3cgY2xvbmluZyB3b3Jrcy4gQSBzb21hdGljIGNlbGwgaXMgcmVtb3ZlZCBmcm9tIHRoZSBvcmdhbmlzbSB0aGF0IHlvdSB3YW50IHRvIGNsb25lLiBZb3UgcmVtb3ZlIHRoZSBudWNsZXVzIGZyb20gdGhpcyBkaWZmZXJlbnRpYXRlZCBjZWxsLCBhbmQgaW1wbGFudCBpdCBpbnRvIGFuIGVnZyBjZWxsIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBoYWQgaXRzIG51Y2xldXMgcmVtb3ZlZC4gVGhlbiB0aGUgcmVzdWx0aW5nIGVtYnJ5byBpcyBpbXBsYW50ZWQgaW50byB0aGUgdXRlcnVzIG9mIGEgZmVtYWxlIHNoZWVwICh3aGljaCBhY3RzIGFzIGEgc3Vycm9nYXRlIG1vdGhlciku

Cg==

U3R1ZHkgdGhlIGRpYWdyYW0gYWJvdmUgaW4gdGhlIGxpZ2h0IG9mIHRoaXMgZXhwbGFuYXRpb24sIGZpZ3VyZSBvdXQgd2hhdCBYIGFuZCBZIGFyZSwgYW5kIHlvdSBzaG91bGQgYmUgYWJsZSB0byB0aGlzIG9uZSByaWdodCBuZXh0IHRpbWUu[Qq]

[c]IExldHRlciBYIGlzIGEgZGlmZmVyZW50aWF0ZWQgY2VsbCByZW1vdmVkIGZyb20gYWR1bHQgYW5pbWFsLiBMZXR0ZXIgWSBpcyBhIG51Y2xldXMgcmVtb3ZlZCBmcm9tIGRpZmZlcmVudGlhdGVkIGFuaW1hbCBjZWxsLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBMZXQmIzgyMTc7cyB0aGluayBhYm91dCBob3cgY2xvbmluZyB3b3Jrcy4gQSBzb21hdGljIGNlbGwgaXMgcmVtb3ZlZCBmcm9tIHRoZSBvcmdhbmlzbSB0aGF0IHlvdSB3YW50IHRvIGNsb25lLiBZb3UgcmVtb3ZlIHRoZSBudWNsZXVzIGZyb20gdGhpcyBkaWZmZXJlbnRpYXRlZCBjZWxsLCBhbmQgaW1wbGFudCBpdCBpbnRvIGFuIGVnZyBjZWxsIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBoYWQgaXRzIG51Y2xldXMgcmVtb3ZlZC4gVGhlbiB0aGUgcmVzdWx0aW5nIGVtYnJ5byBpcyBpbXBsYW50ZWQgaW50byB0aGUgdXRlcnVzIG9mIGEgZmVtYWxlIHNoZWVwICh3aGljaCBhY3RzIGFzIGEgc3Vycm9nYXRlIG1vdGhlciku

Cg==

U3R1ZHkgdGhlIGRpYWdyYW0gYWJvdmUgaW4gdGhlIGxpZ2h0IG9mIHRoaXMgZXhwbGFuYXRpb24sIGZpZ3VyZSBvdXQgd2hhdCBYIGFuZCBZIGFyZSwgYW5kIHlvdSBzaG91bGQgYmUgYWJsZSB0byBnZXQgdGhpcyBvbmUgcmlnaHQgbmV4dCB0aW1lLg==[Qq]

[c]IExldHRlciBYIGlzIGRpZmZlcmVudGlhdGVkIGNlbGwgcmVtb3ZlZCBmcm9tIGFuIGFkdWx0IGFuaW1hbC4gTGV0dG VyIFkgaXMgYW4gdW5mZXJ0aWxpemVkIGVnZyBjZWxsIGFib3V0IHRvIGhhdmUgaXRzIG51Y2xldXMgcmVtb3ZlZC4=[Qq]

[f]IE5pY2UgSm9iLiBZb3UgaGF2ZSBhIGdvb2QgdW5kZXJzdGFuZGluZyBvZiBob3cgY2xvbmluZyB3b3JrcyE=[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|97d6ce9f72734″ question_number=”33″]

A pair of homologous chromosomes involved in normal meiosis in an ovary carries the alleles shown below.

Look at the chromosomes below. Choose the letter that corresponds to the chromosome that could be found in any resultant eggs.

[c]IEk=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgcHJvYmxlbSB3aXRoIGNob2ljZSBJIGlzIHRoYXQgdHdvIGFsbGVsZXMgYXJlIG1pc3NpbmcsIG1ha2luZyBpdCB1bnZpYWJsZS4gU3R1ZHkgdGhlIGRpYWdyYW0sIGFuZCBmaW5kIGEgY2hyb21vc29tZSB0aGF0IHdvdWxkIGJlIGEgdmlhYmxlIGdhbWV0ZS4=[Qq]

[c]IElJ[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgcHJvYmxlbSB3aXRoIGNob2ljZSBJSSBpcyB0aGF0IHRoZSBGIGFsbGVsZSBpcyBtaXNzaW5nLCBtYWtpbmcgaXQgdW52aWFibGUuIFN0dWR5IHRoZSBkaWFncmFtLCBhbmQgZmluZCBhIGNocm9tb3NvbWUgdGhhdCB3b3VsZCBiZSBhIHZpYWJsZSBnYW1ldGUu[Qq]

[c]IElJSQ==[Qq]

[f]Tm8uIENob2ljZSBJSUkgaXMgYSBzZW5zaWJsZSBjaG9pY2UsIGJlY2F1c2UgaXQgd291bGQgYmUgYSB2aWFibGUgY2hyb21vc29tZS4gQnV0IHRha2UgYSBjbG9zZSBsb29rIGF0IHRoZSBhbGxlbGVzIGF2YWlsYWJsZSwgcGFydGljdWxhcmx5IHRoZSBsYXN0IG9uZS4gV2hlcmUgZGlkIHRoYXQgUiBjb21lIGZyb20/[Qq]

[c]IE lW[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gQ2hvaWNlIElWIGhhcyBhbGwgZm91ciBhbGxlbGVzLCBhbmQgaXQmIzgyMTc7cyBhIHBvc3NpYmxlIHJlc3VsdCBmcm9tIHRoZSBjaHJvbW9zb21lcyBpbiB0aGUgb3JpZ2luYWwgZ2VybSBjZWxsLg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Evolution” dataset_id=”144Qs|97c7f6d3a4f34″ question_number=”34″] A farmer is applying a pesticide to suppress an insect called a “stem borer.” The farmer has learned that there is an allele that enables stem borers to tolerate the pesticide, and she is concerned that the stem borers will become pesticide resistant. Which of the following situations would most likely lead to the appearance of pesticide-resistant stem borers?

[c]IElmIG5vbmUgb2YgdGhlIHN0ZW0gYm9yZXJzIGluIHRoaXMgYXJlYSBoYXZlIHRoZSByZXNpc3RhbmNlIGFsbGVsZS4=[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IElmIHN0ZW0gYm9yZXJzIHRoYXQgaGF2ZSB0aGUgcmVzaXN0YW5jZSBhbGxlbGUgYWxzbyBwcm9kdWNlZCBkaWZmZXJlbnQgcGhlcm9tb25lcywgbWFraW5nIGl0IGRpZmZpY3VsdCBmb3IgdGhlbSB0byBhdHRyYWN0IG1hdGVzLg==[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IElmIHRoZSByZXNpc3RhbmNlIGFsbGVsZSBtYWtlcyB0aGUgc3RlbSBib3JlciBhZHVsdHMgc2xvd2VyIGFuZCBlYXNpZXIgcHJleSBmb3IgYmlyZHMu[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IElmIG5laWdoYm9yaW5nIGZhcm1zIGhhdmUgdXNlZCB0aGlzIHBlc3RpY2lkZSBmb3IgeWVhcnMs IGFuZCB0aGUgYWR1bHQgc3RlbSBib3JlcnMgY2FuIGVhc2lseSBmbHkgbG9uZyBkaXN0YW5jZXMu[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gVGhpcyBjaG9pY2UgZGVzY3JpYmVzIGEgc2l0dWF0aW9uIHdoZXJlIGlmIHRoZSBwZXN0aWNpZGUgcmVzaXN0YW5jZSBhbGxlbGUgYXJvc2UgaW4gYSBuZWlnaGJvcmluZyBwb3B1bGF0aW9uLCBpdCBjb3VsZCBpbmNyZWFzZSBpbiBmcmVxdWVuY3kgd2l0aGluIHRoYXQgcG9wdWxhdGlvbiwgYW5kIHNwcmVhZCB0byBuZWlnaGJvcmluZyBmYXJtcy4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Evolution” dataset_id=”144Qs|97b2dd27e2b34″ question_number=”35″] Off of the coast of California, individuals of a species of sharks either have tall fins or short fins. Off of the coast of Australia, the same species is found, but individuals can have a third phenotype: intermediate fin height. Assuming that fin height is controlled at one locus in both populations and that both populations have only two alleles, what could explain these observations?

[c]IFRoZSBmcmVxdWVuY3kgb2YgdGhlIHNob3J0IGFsbGVsZSBpcyBoaWdoZXIgaW4gQXVzdHJhbGlhLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBXaGlsZSB0aGF0IG1pZ2h0IGJlIHRydWUsIGl0IHdvdWxkbiYjODIxNzt0IGV4cGxhaW4gdGhlIGFwcGVhcmFuY2Ugb2YgYW4gaW50ZXJtZWRpYXRlIHBoZW5vdHlwZS4gV2hhdCBraW5kIG9mIGluaGVyaXRhbmNlIHBhdHRlcm4gY2FuIHByb2R1Y2UgaW50ZXJtZWRpYXRlIHBoZW5vdHlwZXMsIGV2ZW4gd2hlbiB0aGVyZSYjODIxNztzIG9ubHkgYSBzaW5nbGUgZ2VuZSB3aXRoIHR3byBhbGxlbGVzIGluIHF1ZXN0aW9uPw==[Qq]

[c]IFRoZSBzaG9ydCBhbGxlbGUgaXMgZG9taW5hbnQgaW4gQ2FsaWZvcm5pYSwgYnV0IHJlY2Vzc2l2ZSBpbiBBdXN0cmFsaWEu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGF0IHdvdWxkbiYjODIxNzt0IGV4cGxhaW4gdGhlIGFwcGVhcmFuY2Ugb2YgYW4gaW50ZXJtZWRpYXRlIHBoZW5vdHlwZS4gV2hhdCBraW5kIG9mIGluaGVyaXRhbmNlIHBhdHRlcm4gY2FuIHByb2R1Y2UgaW50ZXJtZWRpYXRlIHBoZW5vdHlwZXMsIGV2ZW4gd2hlbiB0aGVyZSYjODIxNztzIG9ubHkgYSBzaW5nbGUgZ2VuZSB3aXRoIHR3byBhbGxlbGVzIGluIHF1ZXN0aW9uPw==[Qq]

[c]IFRoZSBzaG9ydCBhbGxlbGUgaXMgZG9taW5hbnQgaW4gQXVzdHJhbGlhLCBidXQgcmVjZXNzaXZlIGluIENhbGlmb3JuaWEu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGF0IHdvdWxkbiYjODIxNzt0IGV4cGxhaW4gdGhlIGFwcGVhcmFuY2Ugb2YgYW4gaW50ZXJtZWRpYXRlIHBoZW5vdHlwZS4gV2hhdCBraW5kIG9mIGluaGVyaXRhbmNlIHBhdHRlcm4gY2FuIHByb2R1Y2UgaW50ZXJtZWRpYXRlIHBoZW5vdHlwZXMsIGV2ZW4gd2hlbiB0aGVyZSYjODIxNztzIG9ubHkgYSBzaW5nbGUgZ2VuZSB3aXRoIHR3byBhbGxlbGVzIGluIHF1ZXN0aW9uPw==[Qq]

[c]IEluIHRoZSBBdXN0cmFsaWFuIHBvcHVsYXRpb24sIGEgbXV0YXRpb24gbW FkZSB0aGUgdGFsbCBhbGxlbGUgaW5jb21wbGV0ZWx5IGRvbWluYW50Lg==[Qq]

[f]IE5pY2Ugam9iISBJbmNvbXBsZXRlIGRvbWluYW5jZSwgd2hpY2ggb2NjdXJzIHdoZW4gdGhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhbiBpbnRlcm1lZGlhdGUgcGhlbm90eXBlIHNlZW4gaW4gaGV0ZXJvenlnb3RlcywgY291bGQgZXhwbGFpbiB0aGUgYXBwZWFyYW5jZSBvZiBpbnRlcm1lZGlhdGUgZmluIGhlaWdodCBpbiB0aGUgQXVzdHJhbGlhbiBzaGFya3Mu[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Evolution” dataset_id=”144Qs|97a2b61564f34″ question_number=”36″] Off of the coast of California, individuals of a species of sharks either have tall fins or short fins. The protein made by the allele for short fins differs by only one amino acid from the protein that results in the tall-finned allele. Which of the following is a correct statement about the nucleotide sequences for the short and tall alleles?

[c]IFRoZSBudWNsZW90aWRlIHNlcXVlbmNlcyBjb3VsZCBiZSBpZGVudGljYWwu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBJZiB0aGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGEgZGlmZmVyZW50IHBoZW5vdHlwZSwgdGhlbiB0aGUgYWxsZWxlIG11c3QgYmUgY29kaW5nIGZvciBhIGRpZmZlcmVudCBwcm90ZWluLiBJbiBvcmRlciB0byBkbyB0aGF0LCB0aGUgbnVjbGVvdGlkZSBzZXF1ZW5jZXMgbXVzdCBiZSBkaWZmZXJlbnQuIE5vdGUgdGhhdCBpZiB5b3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgYW4gZXhjZXB0aW9uYWwgYmlvbG9naWNhbCB0aGlua2VyIHlvdSBtaWdodCBoYXZlIHRob3VnaHQgb2YgdGhlIHBvc3NpYmlsaXR5IG9mIGFuIGVwaWdlbmV0aWMgZWZmZWN0LCBidXQgdGhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIG1vcmUgc3RyYWlnaHRmb3J3YXJkIGFuc3dlciBhbW9uZyB0aGVzZSBjaG9pY2VzLg==[Qq]

[c]IFRoZSBudWNsZW90aWRlIHNlcXVlbmNlcyBtdXN0IGRpZmZlciBieSBvbmUgbnVjbGVvdGlkZS4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vdCBuZWNlc3NhcmlseS4gVGhlIG51Y2xlb3RpZGUgc2VxdWVuY2VzIA==Y291bGQ=IGRpZmZlciBieSBvbmUgbnVjbGVvdGlkZS4gQnV0IHRoZXJlIGFyZSBvdGhlciB3YXlzwqAgdGhhdCB0aGUgbnVjbGVvdGlkZSBzZXF1ZW5jZXMgZm9yIHRoZSBzaG9ydCBhbmQgdGFsbCBmaW4gYWxsZWxlcyBjb3VsZCBkaWZmZXIuIFNlZSBpZiB5b3UgY2FuIHRoaW5rIG9mIGFsbCBvZiB0aGUgcG9zc2libGUgd2F5cywgYW5kIHJlbWVtYmVyIHRoYXQgdGhlIG5leHQgdGltZSB5b3Ugc2VlIHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24u[Qq]

[c]IFRoZSBudWNsZW90aWRlIHNlcXVlbmNlcyBjb3VsZCBkaWZmZXIgYnkgb25lLCB0d28gb3IgdGhyZWUgbnVjbGVvdGlkZXMsIGJ1dCBubyBtb3JlIHRoYW4gdGhyZWUu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBbGwgdGhhdCYjODIxNztzIHJlcXVpcmVkIGlzIHRoYXQgdGhlcmUgbXVzdCBiZSBhIG11dGF0aW9uIHRoYXQgY2hhbmdlcyB0aGUgYW1pbm8gYWNpZCBzZXF1ZW5jZS4gV2h5IHdvdWxkIHRoYXQgYmUgbGltaXRlZCB0byBvbmUsIHR3bywgb3IgdGhyZWUgYWxsZWxlcz8=[Qq]

[c]IFRoZSBudWNsZW90aWRlIHNlcXVlbmNlcyBjb3VsZCBkaWZm ZXIgYnkgbW9yZSB0aGFuIHRocmVlIG51Y2xlb3RpZGVzLg==[Qq]

[f]IENvcnJlY3QuIFRoZSBtdXRhdGlvbiB0aGF0IGNhdXNlcyB0aGlzIGRpZmZlcmVuY2UgY291bGQgY29tZSBhYm91dCBpbiBtYW55IHdheXMsIGFuZCBvZiBhbGwgb2YgdGhlIHdheXMsIHRoaXMgaXMgdGhlIG9ubHkgc3RhdGVtZW50IGluIHRoaXMgbGlzdCBvZiBjaG9pY2VzIHRoYXQgaXMsIHdpdGhvdXQgYW55IHF1YWxpZmljYXRpb25zLCB0cnVlLg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”DNA|RNA|Protein” dataset_id=”144Qs|97932405e0334″ question_number=”37″] As shown below, a DNA fragment from a plasmid in E. coli has two restriction sites for the restriction endonuclease Hind III, which creates fragments X, Y, and Z.

Which of the following patterns would result from separation of these fragments by gel electrophoresis?

[c]IEE=[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IE I=[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gQmFzZWQgb24gdGhlIGRpYWdyYW0sIFogaXMgdGhlwqBsb25nZXN0IGZyYWdtZW50LCBmb2xsb3dlZCBieSBYLCBmb2xsb3dlZCBieSBZLiBBcyBhIHJlc3VsdCwgdGhlIHBhdHRlcm4gdGhhdCB3aWxsIHJlc3VsdCBmcm9tIGVsZWN0cm9waG9yZXNpcyBpcyBCLg==[Qq]

[c]IEM=[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IEQ=[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|9787ca4be8b34″ question_number=”38″] In the diagram below, maternal chromosomes are colored white, and paternal chromosomes are colored black.

If a cell with a diploid number of six is undergoing a type of cell division, then which of the diagrams below could represent the arrangement of chromosomes in this cell at some stage of the cell division process?

[c]IEHigIPigIM=[Qq][c]IELigI PigIM=[Qq][c]IEPigIPigIM=[Qq][c]IEQ=

Cg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBJZiB0aGUgZGlwbG9pZCBudW1iZXIgaXMgc2l4LCB0aGVuIHRoZSBjZWxsIHdvdWxkIG5ldmVyIGhhdmUgbW9yZSB0aGFuIHNpeCBjaHJvbW9zb21lcy4gSW4gdGhpcyBkaWFncmFtLCB5b3Ugc2VlIDEyLiBSZW1lbWJlciB0aGF0IHRoZSBuZXh0IHRpbWUgeW91IHNlZSB0aGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5pY2Ugam9iLiBJZiB0aGUgY2VsbCB3ZXJlIGdvaW5nIHRocm91Z2ggbWVpb3NpcywgdGhlbiB5b3UgbWlnaHQgc2VlIHRocmVlIGRvdWJsZWQgY2hyb21vc29tZXMgYWZ0ZXIgbWVpb3NpcyAxICh3aGljaCBpcyB3aGF0IHlvdSBzZWUgaGVyZSkuIEJlY2F1c2Ugb2YgaW5kZXBlbmRlbnQgYXNzb3J0bWVudCwgaXQmIzgyMTc7cyBjb21wbGV0ZWx5IHBvc3NpYmxlIHRoYXQgdHdvIG9mIHRoZSBjaHJvbW9zb21lcyB3b3VsZCBiZSBtYXRlcm5hbCwgYW5kIG9uZSB3b3VsZCBiZSBwYXRlcm5hbC4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBJZiBhIGNlbGwgaGFzIGEgZGlwbG9pZCBudW1iZXIgb2Ygc2l4LCB0aGVuIHlvdSBjb3VsZCBzZWUgc2l4IGNocm9tb3NvbWVzIGxpbmluZyB1cCBkdXJpbmcgbWV0YXBoYXNlIDEgKHRoZSBhbGlnbm1lbnQgcGhhc2UpIG9mIG1pdG9zaXMuIFRoZSBwcm9ibGVtIGlzIHRoYXQgaGFsZiB0aGUgY2hyb21vc29tZXMgd291bGQgaGF2ZSB0byBiZSBwYXRlcm5hbCwgYW5kIGhhbGYgd291bGQgYmUgbWF0ZXJuYWwuIEhlcmUgeW91IGhhdmUgZm91ciBtYXRlcm5hbCBjaHJvbW9zb21lcyBhbmQgdHdvIHBhdGVybmFsIG9uZXMuIFJlbWVtYmVyIHRoYXQgdGhlIG5leHQgdGltZSB5b3Ugc2VlIHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24u[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBXaGlsZSBhIGRpcGxvaWQgY2VsbCB3b3VsZCBsaW5lIHVwIGl0cyBjaHJvbW9zb21lcyBpbiBhIHdheSB0aGF0JiM4MjE3O3Mgc2ltaWxhciB0byB0aGlzIGR1cmluZyBtZXRhcGhhc2UgMSBvZiBtZWlvc2lzIDEsIHRoZXJlJiM4MjE3O3Mgb25lIHByb2JsZW06IGZvdXIgb2YgdGhlIGNocm9tb3NvbWVzIGFyZSBwYXRlcm5hbCwgYW5kIHR3byBhcmUgbWF0ZXJuYWwuIEZvciB0aGlzIHRvIGJlIGNvcnJlY3QsIGhhbGYgd291bGQgaGF2ZSB0byBiZSBtYXRlcm5hbCwgYW5kIGhhbGYgcGF0ZXJuYWwuIFJlbWVtYmVyIHRoYXQgdGhlIG5leHQgdGltZSB5b3Ugc2VlIHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24u[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|977c4b5132f34″ question_number=”39″] A plant with genotype DdEeFf was crossed with a plant with genotype ddEEFf. What is the probability of obtaining DdEeFf progeny?

Note from Mr. W: the goal is to solve this problem without making an enormous Punnett square!

[c]IDEvNjQ=[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IDEvMzI=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUbyBzb2x2ZSB0aGlzLCB5b3UgbmVlZCB0byB1c2UgdGhlIHJ1bGUgb2YgbXVsdGlwbGljYXRpb246IHRvIGNhbGN1bGF0ZSB0aGUgcHJvYmFiaWxpdHkgb2YgdHdvIG9yIG1vcmUgZXZlbnRzIG9jY3VycmluZyB0b2dldGhlciwgd2UgbXVsdGlwbHkgdGhlaXIgc2VwYXJhdGUgcHJvYmFiaWxpdGllcy4gSW4gdGhpcyBjYXNlLCB0aGUgcHJvYmFiaWxpdHkgb2YgRGQgeCBkZCBwcm9kdWNpbmcgRGQgaXMgMS8yLiBUaGUgcHJvYmFiaWxpdHkgb2YgRWUgeCBFRSBwcm9kdWNpbmcgRWUgaXMgMS8yLiBOb3cgZmlndXJlIG91dCB0aGUgcHJvYmFiaWxpdHkgb2YgRmYgeCBGZiBwcm9kdWNpbmcgRmYuIE11bHRpcGx5IHRoYXQgdGltZXMgMS8yIHggMS8yLCBhbmTCoCB3aGF0IGRvIHlvdSBnZXQ/[Qq]

[c]IDEv MTY=[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCEgVGhlIHByb2JhYmlsaXR5IGlzIDEvMiB4IDEvMiB4IDEvMiwgb3IgMS8xNi4=[Qq]

[c]IDEvOA==[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IDEvNA==[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|977081d500b34″ question_number=”40″] The shapes of tabby stripes in a cat’s fur is controlled by an autosomal gene with two alleles:

T: vertical colored stripes (called mackerel tabby)

t: swirly colored stripes (called blotched tabby.}

The patterns are illustrated as follows.

A second autosomal gene (not linked to the tabby-striped gene)is the Agouti gene. This gene has the alleles

A: tabby fur pattern

a: no tabby pattern.

A cat that is aa for the Agouti locus fails to show any stripes, regardless of its genotype at the tabby stripes locus. These cats are solid black in color.

A cross was carried out between cats of the following genotypes.

TTAa X ttAa

The cats had two kittens. Which of the images below shows phenotypes that would be possible? Note that not all the kittens in a litter would have to have the phenotype shown in any one of the choices below. 

[c]IEHigI PigIM=[Qq][c]IELigIPigIM=[Qq][c]IEPigIPigIM=[Qq][c]IEQ=

Cg==[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCEgVGhpcyB0eXBlIG9mIGNyb3NzIGNvdWxkIG9ubHkgcHJvZHVjZSBraXR0ZW5zIHRoYXQgd2VyZSBibGFjaywgb3Igd2hpY2ggd2VyZSBtYWNrZXJlbCB0YWJieSAodGhlIGtpbmQgd2l0aCB2ZXJ0aWNhbCBzdHJpcGVzKS4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgY3Jvc3MgaXMgYmV0d2VlbiA=VFRBYQ==IGFuZCA=dHRBYQ==

[Qq]

Here’s the Punnett square

tA ta
TA TtAA TtAa
Ta TtAa Ttaa


The genotypes
TtAA and TtAa result in mackerel tabby. Ttaa results in black. There’s no possibility, in this cross, of a blotched tabby (which could come about through inheriting genotypes ttAa or ttAA).

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgY3Jvc3MgaXMgYmV0d2VlbiA=VFRBYQ==IGFuZCA=dHRBYQ==

[Qq]

Here’s the Punnett square

tA ta
TA TtAA TtAa
Ta TtAa Ttaa

The genotypes TtAA and TtAa result in mackerel tabby. Ttaa results in black. There’s no possibility, in this cross, of a blotched tabby (which could come about through inheriting genotypes ttAa or ttAA).

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgY3Jvc3MgaXMgYmV0d2VlbiA=VFRBYQ==IGFuZCA=dHRBYQ==

[Qq]

Here’s the Punnett square

tA ta
TA TtAA TtAa
Ta TtAa Ttaa

The genotypes TtAA and TtAa result in mackerel tabby. Ttaa results in black. There’s no possibility, in this cross, of a blotched tabby (which could come about through inheriting genotypes ttAa or ttAA).

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|9763d8d458f34″ question_number=”41″] In a newly bred population of mice, coat color is under the influence of three alleles.

C: black coat

cR: brown coat

c: white coat

The black coat allele is dominant over both brown and white coat. The genotype cRc produces another coat color known as fawn.

Which of the following predictions is correct?

[c]IENjUg==IHggQ2M=Ug==OiBhbGwgYmxhY2sgbWljZS4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgdGhlIFB1bm5ldHQgc3F1YXJlIGZvcsKgQ2M=Ug==IHggQ2M=Ug==[Qq]

C cR
C CC CcR
cR CcR cRcR

CC is black; Ccis black. But cRcis brown.

[c]IGM=Ug==Yw==Ug==IHggYw==[Qq]Rc: all brown mice.

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgdGhlIFB1bm5ldHQgc3F1YXJlIGZvcsKgYw==Ug==Yw==Ug==[Qq] x cRc.

cR cR
cR cRcR cRcR
c cRc cRc

cRcR is brown; cRc is fawn.

[c]IG M=Ug==Yw==Ug==IHggY2M6IGFsbCBmYXduIG1pY2Uu[Qq]

[f]IEZhYnVsb3VzLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgdGhlIFB1bm5ldHQgc3F1YXJlIGZvcsKgYw==Ug==Yw==Ug==[Qq] x cc:

cR cR
c cRc cRc
c cRc cRc

All the offspring have the cR genotype, and the  fawn phenotype

[c]IENjIHggY2M6IGFsbCB3aGl0ZSBtaWNlLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgdGhlIFB1bm5ldHQgc3F1YXJlIGZvciBDYyB4IGNjLg==

Cg==Cg==[Qq]
C c
c Cc cc
c Cc cc

Cc is black; cc is white. 

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|9756e55234b34″ question_number=”42″] Two strains of mice that are heterozygous for four genes (AaBbCcDd)are crossed together. What proportion of the total offspring would be homozygous for all four genes?

[c]IDEvMjU2[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGluayBhYm91dCBpdCB0aGlzIHdheS4gSW4gYSBtb25vaHlicmlkIGNyb3NzIGJldHdlZW4gQWE=IGFuZCA=QWE=LCB0aGUgb2Zmc3ByaW5nIGNhbiBiZSBob21venlnb3VzIGluIHR3byB3YXlzOiB0aGV5IGNhbiBiZSA=[Qq]aa or AA. If you imagine the Punnett square for Aa x Aa, you’ll see that 1/2 of the squares are filled with aa or AA. The same is true for Bb x Bb, Cc x Cc, and Dd x Dd. Now use the rule of multiplication, and you’ll have the answer.

[c]IDEvMzI=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGluayBhYm91dCBpdCB0aGlzIHdheS4gSW4gYSBtb25vaHlicmlkIGNyb3NzIGJldHdlZW4gQWE=IGFuZCA=QWE=LCB0aGUgb2Zmc3ByaW5nIGNhbiBiZSBob21venlnb3VzIGluIHR3byB3YXlzOiB0aGV5IGNhbiBiZSA=[Qq]aa or AA. If you imagine the Punnett square for Aa x Aa, you’ll see that 1/2 of the squares are filled with aa or AA. The same is true for Bb x Bb, Cc x Cc, and Dd x Dd. Now use the rule of multiplication, and you’ll have the answer.

[c]IDEv MTYu[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCEgSW4gYSB0ZXRyYWh5YnJpZCBjcm9zcyAoQWFCYkNjRGQgeCBBYUJiQ2NEZCksIHRoZSBudW1iZXIgb2Ygb2Zmc3ByaW5nIHRoYXQgd2lsbCBiZSBob21venlnb3VzIGZvciBhbGwgZm91ciBnZW5lcyBpcyAxLzIgeCAxLzIgeCAxLzIgeCAxLzIsIG9yIDEvMTY=[Qq]

[c]IDEvOA==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGluayBhYm91dCBpdCB0aGlzIHdheS4gSW4gYSBtb25vaHlicmlkIGNyb3NzIGJldHdlZW4gQWE=IGFuZCA=QWE=LCB0aGUgb2Zmc3ByaW5nIGNhbiBiZSBob21venlnb3VzIGluIHR3byB3YXlzOiB0aGV5IGNhbiBiZSA=[Qq]aa or AA. If you imagine the Punnett square for Aa x Aa, you’ll see that 1/2 of the squares are filled with aa or AA. The same is true for Bb x Bb, Cc x Cc, and Dd x Dd. Now use the rule of multiplication, and you’ll have the answer.

[c]IDEvNA==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGluayBhYm91dCBpdCB0aGlzIHdheS4gSW4gYSBtb25vaHlicmlkIGNyb3NzIGJldHdlZW4gQWE=IGFuZCA=QWE=LCB0aGUgb2Zmc3ByaW5nIGNhbiBiZSBob21venlnb3VzIGluIHR3byB3YXlzOiB0aGV5IGNhbiBiZSA=[Qq]aa or AA. If you imagine the Punnett square for Aa x Aa, you’ll see that 1/2 of the squares are filled with aa or AA. The same is true for Bb x Bb, Cc x Cc, and Dd x Dd. Now use the rule of multiplication, and you’ll have the answer.

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|974b4116c0b34″ question_number=”43″] Two strains of mice that are heterozygous for four genes (AaBbCcDd)are crossed together. What proportion of the total offspring would show a recessive phenotype for all four genes?

[c]IDEv MjU2[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCEgSW4gYSB0ZXRyYWh5YnJpZCBjcm9zcyAoQWFCYkNjRGQgeCBBYUJiQ2NEZCkgdGhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIDEvMjU2IGNoYW5jZSBvZiB0aGUgb2Zmc3ByaW5nIHNob3dpbmcgdGhlIHJlY2Vzc2l2ZSBwaGVub3R5cGUgZm9yIGFsbCBmb3VyIGdlbmVzICgxLzQgeCAxLzQgeCAxLzQgeCAxLzQp[Qq]

[c]IDEvMzI=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGVyZSBhcmUgdHdvIHN0ZXBzIHRvIGdldHRpbmcgdGhpcyBwcm9ibGVtIHJpZ2h0LiBGaXJzdCwgbm90ZSB0aGF0IGluIGEgbW9ub2h5YnJpZCBjcm9zcyAoQWEgeCBBYSkgdGhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIDEvNCBjaGFuY2Ugb2YgZ2V0dGluZyBhbiBvZmZzcHJpbmcgdGhhdCB3aWxsIHNob3cgdGhlIHJlY2Vzc2l2ZSBwaGVub3R5cGUuIFNlY29uZCwga25vd2luZyB0aGF0LCB5b3UgdXNlIHRoZSB0aGUgcnVsZSBvZiBtdWx0aXBsaWNhdGlvbiB0byBjYWxjdWxhdGUgdGhlIHByb2JhYmlsaXR5IG9mIHRoaXMgaGFwcGVuaW5nIGZvciBhbGwgZm91ciBhbGxlbGUgcGFpcnMuIFdoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyAxLzQgeCAxLzQgeCAxLzQgeCAxLzQ/[Qq]

[c]IDEvMTY=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGVyZSBhcmUgdHdvIHN0ZXBzIHRvIGdldHRpbmcgdGhpcyBwcm9ibGVtIHJpZ2h0LiBGaXJzdCwgbm90ZSB0aGF0IGluIGEgbW9ub2h5YnJpZCBjcm9zcyAoQWEgeCBBYSkgdGhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIDEvNCBjaGFuY2Ugb2YgZ2V0dGluZyBhbiBvZmZzcHJpbmcgdGhhdCB3aWxsIHNob3cgdGhlIHJlY2Vzc2l2ZSBwaGVub3R5cGUuIFNlY29uZCwga25vd2luZyB0aGF0LCB5b3UgdXNlIHRoZSB0aGUgcnVsZSBvZiBtdWx0aXBsaWNhdGlvbiB0byBjYWxjdWxhdGUgdGhlIHByb2JhYmlsaXR5IG9mIHRoaXMgaGFwcGVuaW5nIGZvciBhbGwgZm91ciBhbGxlbGUgcGFpcnMuIFdoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyAxLzQgeCAxLzQgeCAxLzQgeCAxLzQ/[Qq]

[c]IDEvOA==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGVyZSBhcmUgdHdvIHN0ZXBzIHRvIGdldHRpbmcgdGhpcyBwcm9ibGVtIHJpZ2h0LiBGaXJzdCwgbm90ZSB0aGF0IGluIGEgbW9ub2h5YnJpZCBjcm9zcyAoQWEgeCBBYSkgdGhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIDEvNCBjaGFuY2Ugb2YgZ2V0dGluZyBhbiBvZmZzcHJpbmcgdGhhdCB3aWxsIHNob3cgdGhlIHJlY2Vzc2l2ZSBwaGVub3R5cGUuIFNlY29uZCwga25vd2luZyB0aGF0LCB5b3UgdXNlIHRoZSB0aGUgcnVsZSBvZiBtdWx0aXBsaWNhdGlvbiB0byBjYWxjdWxhdGUgdGhlIHByb2JhYmlsaXR5IG9mIHRoaXMgaGFwcGVuaW5nIGZvciBhbGwgZm91ciBhbGxlbGUgcGFpcnMuIFdoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyAxLzQgeCAxLzQgeCAxLzQgeCAxLzQ/[Qq]

[c]IDEvNA==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGVyZSBhcmUgdHdvIHN0ZXBzIHRvIGdldHRpbmcgdGhpcyBwcm9ibGVtIHJpZ2h0LiBGaXJzdCwgbm90ZSB0aGF0IGluIGEgbW9ub2h5YnJpZCBjcm9zcyAoQWEgeCBBYSkgdGhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIDEvNCBjaGFuY2Ugb2YgZ2V0dGluZyBhbiBvZmZzcHJpbmcgdGhhdCB3aWxsIHNob3cgdGhlIHJlY2Vzc2l2ZSBwaGVub3R5cGUuIFNlY29uZCwga25vd2luZyB0aGF0LCB5b3UgdXNlIHRoZSB0aGUgcnVsZSBvZiBtdWx0aXBsaWNhdGlvbiB0byBjYWxjdWxhdGUgdGhlIHByb2JhYmlsaXR5IG9mIHRoaXMgaGFwcGVuaW5nIGZvciBhbGwgZm91ciBhbGxlbGUgcGFpcnMuIFdoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyAxLzQgeCAxLzQgeCAxLzQgeCAxLzQ/[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|973ee29795734″ question_number=”44″] The pedigree below shows inheritance of an X-linked recessive trait.

What is the probability that the female designated as “1″ is a carrier for the trait?

[c]IDAl4oCD4oCD[Qq][c]IDI1JeKAg+KAgw==[Qq][c]IDUwJeKA g+KAgw==[Qq][c]IDc1JeKAg+KAgw==[Qq][c]IDEwMCU=[Qq]
[f]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WA==aA==KSwgYW5kIHRoZSBmYXRoZXIgd2FzIG5vcm1hbCAoWA==[Qq]HY).

If you can, your best move at this point is to make a Punnett square and figure out the answer. If you need to see the Punnett square that I made to solve this problem, read on…

Here’s the Punnett square:

XH Xh
XH XHXH XHXh
Y XHY XhY

Look at the two girls in the top row, and you should be able to figure out the probability that any one of the daughters will be a carrier.

[f]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WA==aA==KSwgYW5kIHRoZSBmYXRoZXIgd2FzIG5vcm1hbCAoWA==[Qq]HY).

If you can, your best move at this point is to make a Punnett square and figure out the answer. If you need to see the Punnett square that I made to solve this problem, read on…

Here’s the Punnett square:

XH Xh
XH XHXH XHXh
Y XHY XhY

Look at the two girls in the top row, and you should be able to figure out the probability that any one of the daughters will be a carrier.

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCEgVGhlIHRoZSBwcm9iYWJpbGl0eSB0aGF0IDEgKG9uZSBvZiB0aGUgZGF1Z2h0ZXJzKSBpcyBhIGNhcnJpZXIgaXMgNTAlLCBhcyB5b3UgY2FuIHNlZSBieSB0aGlzIFB1bm5ldHQgc3F1YXJl

Cg==Cg==Cg==Cg==
[Qq] XH Xh
XH XHXH XHXh
Y XHY XhY

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgaG93IHRvIHRoaW5rIGFib3V0IHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24uIEltYWdpbmUgdGhhdCB0aGlzIGlzIGFib3V0IGFueSBvZiB0aGUgcmVjZXNzaXZlLCBzZXggbGlua2VkIHRyYWl0cyB0aGF0IHlvdSYjODIxNzt2ZSBsZWFybmVkIGFib3V0IHRoaXMgeWVhciwgc3VjaCBhcyBoZW1vcGhpbGlhLiBGb3IgY2xhcml0eSwgbGV0JiM4MjE3O3MgaGF2ZSAmIzgyMjA7SCYjODIyMTsgc3RhbmQgZm9yIHRoZSBub3JtYWwgYWxsZWxlLCBhbmQgJiM4MjIwO2gmIzgyMjE7IGZvciB0aGUgYWxsZWxlIHRoYXQgY2F1c2VzIHRoZSByZWNlc3NpdmUgY29uZGl0aW9uLsKgIEJlY2F1c2UgdGhlIGZlbWFsZSBhdCAxIGhhcyBhIGJyb3RoZXIgd2hvIGhhcyB0aGUgY29uZGl0aW9uLCBhbmQgcGFyZW50cyB3aG8gZG9uJiM4MjE3O3QgaGF2ZSB0aGUgY29uZGl0aW9ucyB0aGVuIHdlIGtub3cgdGhhdCB0aGUgbW90aGVyIG9mIDEgaXMgYSBjYXJyaWVyIChYSA==WA==aA==KSwgYW5kIHRoZSBmYXRoZXIgd2FzIG5vcm1hbCAoWA==[Qq]HY).

If you can, your best move at this point is to make a Punnett square and figure out the answer. If you need to see the Punnett square that I made to solve this problem, read on…

Here’s the Punnett square:

XH Xh
XH XHXH XHXh
Y XHY XhY

Look at the two girls in the top row, and you should be able to figure out the probability that any one of the daughters will be a carrier.

[f]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WA==aA==KSwgYW5kIHRoZSBmYXRoZXIgd2FzIG5vcm1hbCAoWA==[Qq]HY).

If you can, your best move at this point is to make a Punnett square and figure out the answer. If you need to see the Punnett square that I made to solve this problem, read on…

Here’s the Punnett square:

XH Xh
XH XHXH XHXh
Y XHY XhY

Look at the two girls in the top row, and you should be able to figure out the probability that any one of the daughters will be a carrier.

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|9732ce99e6b34″ question_number=”45″] The pedigree below shows inheritance of an X-linked recessive trait.

What is the probability that the child indicated by ? will be a boy who is affected by the trait?

[c]IDAl[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgaG93IHRvIHRoaW5rIGFib3V0IHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24uIEltYWdpbmUgdGhhdCBpdCYjODIxNztzIGEgcmVjZXNzaXZlLCBzZXgtbGlua2VkIHRyYWl0LCBsaWtlIGhlbW9waGlsaWEuIEZvciBjbGFyaXR5LCBsZXQmIzgyMTc7cyBoYXZlICYjODIyMDtIJiM4MjIxOyBzdGFuZCBmb3IgdGhlIG5vcm1hbCBhbGxlbGUsIGFuZCAmIzgyMjA7aCYjODIyMTsgZm9yIHRoZSBhbGxlbGUgdGhhdCBjYXVzZXMgdGhlIHJlY2Vzc2l2ZSBjb25kaXRpb24uwqAgVGhlIGNoaWxkIGF0IA==Pw==wqBoYXMgYSBmYXRoZXIgd2hvIGhhcyB0aGUgdHJhaXQ6IHRoZXJlZm9yZSB0aGUgZmF0aGVyJiM4MjE3O3MgZ2Vub3R5cGUgaXMgWA==aA==WS4gVGhlIGNoaWxkJiM4MjE3O3MgbW90aGVyIGhhZCBhIGJyb3RoZXIgd2hvIHdhcyBoYXMgdGhlIHJlY2Vzc2l2ZSB0cmFpdC4gVGhlcmVmb3JlID8mIzgyMTc7cyBncmFuZG1vdGhlciBoYWQgdG8gYmUgYSBjYXJyaWVyLCBhbmQgPyYjODIxNztzIG1vdGhlciBoYXMgYSA1MCUgY2hhbmNlIG9mIGJlaW5nIGEgY2Fycmllci4=

[Qq]

Now use the rule of multiplication. There’s a 1/2 chance that ? will be a boy (true of any child, right?). There’s a 1/2 chance that the mother is a carrier. And, if she’s a carrier, there’s a 1/2 chance that she’ll pass on herXh allele. Multiply all of these probabilities together, and you’ll have your answer.

[c]IDEy LjUl[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gVGhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIDEvMiBjaGFuY2UgdGhhdCB0aGUgY2hpbGQgd2lsbCBiZSBhIGJveS4gVGhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIDEvMiBjaGFuY2UgdGhhdCB0aGUgbW9tIGlzIGEgY2Fycmllci4gQW5kIHRoZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSAxLzIgY2hhbmNlIHRoYXQgdGhpcyBjYXJyaWVyIG1vbSB3aWxsIHBhc3Mgb24gdGhlIHJlY2Vzc2l2ZSBhbGxlbGUuwqAxLzIgeCAxLzIgeCAxLzIgPSAxLzgsIG9yIDEyLjUl[Qq]

[c]IDUwJQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgaG93IHRvIHRoaW5rIGFib3V0IHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24uIEltYWdpbmUgdGhhdCBpdCYjODIxNztzIGEgcmVjZXNzaXZlLCBzZXgtbGlua2VkIHRyYWl0LCBsaWtlIGhlbW9waGlsaWEuIEZvciBjbGFyaXR5LCBsZXQmIzgyMTc7cyBoYXZlICYjODIyMDtIJiM4MjIxOyBzdGFuZCBmb3IgdGhlIG5vcm1hbCBhbGxlbGUsIGFuZCAmIzgyMjA7aCYjODIyMTsgZm9yIHRoZSBhbGxlbGUgdGhhdCBjYXVzZXMgdGhlIHJlY2Vzc2l2ZSBjb25kaXRpb24uwqAgVGhlIGNoaWxkIGF0IA==Pw==wqBoYXMgYSBmYXRoZXIgd2hvIGhhcyB0aGUgdHJhaXQ6IHRoZXJlZm9yZSB0aGUgZmF0aGVyJiM4MjE3O3MgZ2Vub3R5cGUgaXMgWA==aA==WS4gVGhlIGNoaWxkJiM4MjE3O3MgbW90aGVyIGhhZCBhIGJyb3RoZXIgd2hvIHdhcyBoYXMgdGhlIHJlY2Vzc2l2ZSB0cmFpdC4gVGhlcmVmb3JlID8mIzgyMTc7cyBncmFuZG1vdGhlciBoYWQgdG8gYmUgYSBjYXJyaWVyLCBhbmQgPyYjODIxNztzIG1vdGhlciBoYXMgYSA1MCUgY2hhbmNlIG9mIGJlaW5nIGEgY2Fycmllci4=

[Qq]

Now use the rule of multiplication. There’s a 1/2 chance that ? will be a boy (true of any child, right?). There’s a 1/2 chance that the mother is a carrier. And, if she’s a carrier, there’s a 1/2 chance that she’ll pass on herXh allele. Multiply all of these probabilities together, and you’ll have your answer.

[c]IDc1JQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgaG93IHRvIHRoaW5rIGFib3V0IHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24uIEltYWdpbmUgdGhhdCBpdCYjODIxNztzIGEgcmVjZXNzaXZlLCBzZXgtbGlua2VkIHRyYWl0LCBsaWtlIGhlbW9waGlsaWEuIEZvciBjbGFyaXR5LCBsZXQmIzgyMTc7cyBoYXZlICYjODIyMDtIJiM4MjIxOyBzdGFuZCBmb3IgdGhlIG5vcm1hbCBhbGxlbGUsIGFuZCAmIzgyMjA7aCYjODIyMTsgZm9yIHRoZSBhbGxlbGUgdGhhdCBjYXVzZXMgdGhlIHJlY2Vzc2l2ZSBjb25kaXRpb24uwqAgVGhlIGNoaWxkIGF0IA==Pw==wqBoYXMgYSBmYXRoZXIgd2hvIGhhcyB0aGUgdHJhaXQ6IHRoZXJlZm9yZSB0aGUgZmF0aGVyJiM4MjE3O3MgZ2Vub3R5cGUgaXMgWA==aA==WS4gVGhlIGNoaWxkJiM4MjE3O3MgbW90aGVyIGhhZCBhIGJyb3RoZXIgd2hvIHdhcyBoYXMgdGhlIHJlY2Vzc2l2ZSB0cmFpdC4gVGhlcmVmb3JlID8mIzgyMTc7cyBncmFuZG1vdGhlciBoYWQgdG8gYmUgYSBjYXJyaWVyLCBhbmQgPyYjODIxNztzIG1vdGhlciBoYXMgYSA1MCUgY2hhbmNlIG9mIGJlaW5nIGEgY2Fycmllci4=

[Qq]

Now use the rule of multiplication. There’s a 1/2 chance that ? will be a boy (true of any child, right?). There’s a 1/2 chance that the mother is a carrier. And, if she’s a carrier, there’s a 1/2 chance that she’ll pass on herXh allele. Multiply all of these probabilities together, and you’ll have your answer.

[c]IDEwMCU=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgaG93IHRvIHRoaW5rIGFib3V0IHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24uIEltYWdpbmUgdGhhdCBpdCYjODIxNztzIGEgcmVjZXNzaXZlLCBzZXgtbGlua2VkIHRyYWl0LCBsaWtlIGhlbW9waGlsaWEuIEZvciBjbGFyaXR5LCBsZXQmIzgyMTc7cyBoYXZlICYjODIyMDtIJiM4MjIxOyBzdGFuZCBmb3IgdGhlIG5vcm1hbCBhbGxlbGUsIGFuZCAmIzgyMjA7aCYjODIyMTsgZm9yIHRoZSBhbGxlbGUgdGhhdCBjYXVzZXMgdGhlIHJlY2Vzc2l2ZSBjb25kaXRpb24uwqAgVGhlIGNoaWxkIGF0IA==Pw==wqBoYXMgYSBmYXRoZXIgd2hvIGhhcyB0aGUgdHJhaXQ6IHRoZXJlZm9yZSB0aGUgZmF0aGVyJiM4MjE3O3MgZ2Vub3R5cGUgaXMgWA==aA==WS4gVGhlIGNoaWxkJiM4MjE3O3MgbW90aGVyIGhhZCBhIGJyb3RoZXIgd2hvIHdhcyBoYXMgdGhlIHJlY2Vzc2l2ZSB0cmFpdC4gVGhlcmVmb3JlID8mIzgyMTc7cyBncmFuZG1vdGhlciBoYWQgdG8gYmUgYSBjYXJyaWVyLCBhbmQgPyYjODIxNztzIG1vdGhlciBoYXMgYSA1MCUgY2hhbmNlIG9mIGJlaW5nIGEgY2Fycmllci4=

[Qq]

Now use the rule of multiplication. There’s a 1/2 chance that ? will be a boy (true of any child, right?). There’s a 1/2 chance that the mother is a carrier. And, if she’s a carrier, there’s a 1/2 chance that she’ll pass on herXh allele. Multiply all of these probabilities together, and you’ll have your answer.

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|9723870bde734″ question_number=”46″] The pedigree below shows inheritance of an X-linked recessive trait.

If the child indicated by ? is a girl, what is the probability she will be affected by the trait?

[c]IDAl[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgaG93IHRvIHRoaW5rIGFib3V0IHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24uIEltYWdpbmUgdGhhdCB0aGUgdHJhaXQgdW5kZXIgZGlzY3Vzc2lvbiBpcyBoZW1vcGhpbGlhLiBGb3IgY2xhcml0eSwgbGV0JiM4MjE3O3MgaGF2ZSAmIzgyMjA7SCYjODIyMTsgc3RhbmQgZm9yIHRoZSBub3JtYWwgYWxsZWxlLCBhbmQgJiM4MjIwO2gmIzgyMjE7IGZvciB0aGUgYWxsZWxlIHRoYXQgY2F1c2VzIHRoZSByZWNlc3NpdmUgY29uZGl0aW9uLsKgIFRoZSBjaGlsZCBhdCA=Pw==wqBoYXMgYSBmYXRoZXIgd2hvIGhhcyB0aGUgdHJhaXQ6IHRoZXJlZm9yZSB0aGUgZmF0aGVyJiM4MjE3O3MgZ2Vub3R5cGUgaXMgWA==aA==WS4gVGhlIGNoaWxkJiM4MjE3O3MgbW90aGVyIGhhZCBhIGJyb3RoZXIgd2hvIHdhcyBoYXMgdGhlIHJlY2Vzc2l2ZSB0cmFpdC4gVGhlcmVmb3JlID8mIzgyMTc7cyBncmFuZG1vdGhlciBoYWQgdG8gYmUgYSBjYXJyaWVyLCBhbmQgPyYjODIxNztzIG1vdGhlciBoYXMgYSA1MCUgY2hhbmNlIG9mIGJlaW5nIGEgY2Fycmllci4=

[Qq]

Now use the rule of multiplication. It’s already established in the question that the child is a girl. There’s a 100% chance that she’ll inherit the recessive allele from her father (that’s how she wound up being a girl in the first place, right?) There’s a 1/2 chance that the mother is a carrier. And, if mom’s a carrier, there’s a 1/2 chance that she’ll pass on her Xh allele, producing a daughter that’s XhXh. Multiply these probabilities out, and you’ll have your answer.

[c]IDI1 JQ==[Qq]

[f]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aA==IGFsbGVsZSwgcHJvZHVjaW5nIGEgZGF1Z2h0ZXIgdGhhdCYjODIxNztzIFg=aA==WA==[Qq]h. 1/2 x 1/2 = 1/4.

[c]IDUwJQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgaG93IHRvIHRoaW5rIGFib3V0IHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24uIEltYWdpbmUgdGhhdCB0aGUgdHJhaXQgdW5kZXIgZGlzY3Vzc2lvbiBpcyBoZW1vcGhpbGlhLiBGb3IgY2xhcml0eSwgbGV0JiM4MjE3O3MgaGF2ZSAmIzgyMjA7SCYjODIyMTsgc3RhbmQgZm9yIHRoZSBub3JtYWwgYWxsZWxlLCBhbmQgJiM4MjIwO2gmIzgyMjE7IGZvciB0aGUgYWxsZWxlIHRoYXQgY2F1c2VzIHRoZSByZWNlc3NpdmUgY29uZGl0aW9uLsKgIFRoZSBjaGlsZCBhdCA=Pw==wqBoYXMgYSBmYXRoZXIgd2hvIGhhcyB0aGUgdHJhaXQ6IHRoZXJlZm9yZSB0aGUgZmF0aGVyJiM4MjE3O3MgZ2Vub3R5cGUgaXMgWA==aA==WS4gVGhlIGNoaWxkJiM4MjE3O3MgbW90aGVyIGhhZCBhIGJyb3RoZXIgd2hvIHdhcyBoYXMgdGhlIHJlY2Vzc2l2ZSB0cmFpdC4gVGhlcmVmb3JlID8mIzgyMTc7cyBncmFuZG1vdGhlciBoYWQgdG8gYmUgYSBjYXJyaWVyLCBhbmQgPyYjODIxNztzIG1vdGhlciBoYXMgYSA1MCUgY2hhbmNlIG9mIGJlaW5nIGEgY2Fycmllci4=

[Qq]

Now use the rule of multiplication. It’s already established in the question that the child is a girl. There’s a 100% chance that she’ll inherit the recessive allele from her father (that’s how she wound up being a girl in the first place, right?) There’s a 1/2 chance that the mother is a carrier. And, if mom’s a carrier, there’s a 1/2 chance that she’ll pass on her Xh allele, producing a daughter that’s XhXh. Multiply these probabilities out, and you’ll have your answer.

[c]IDc1JQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgaG93IHRvIHRoaW5rIGFib3V0IHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24uIEltYWdpbmUgdGhhdCB0aGUgdHJhaXQgdW5kZXIgZGlzY3Vzc2lvbiBpcyBoZW1vcGhpbGlhLiBGb3IgY2xhcml0eSwgbGV0JiM4MjE3O3MgaGF2ZSAmIzgyMjA7SCYjODIyMTsgc3RhbmQgZm9yIHRoZSBub3JtYWwgYWxsZWxlLCBhbmQgJiM4MjIwO2gmIzgyMjE7IGZvciB0aGUgYWxsZWxlIHRoYXQgY2F1c2VzIHRoZSByZWNlc3NpdmUgY29uZGl0aW9uLsKgIFRoZSBjaGlsZCBhdCA=Pw==wqBoYXMgYSBmYXRoZXIgd2hvIGhhcyB0aGUgdHJhaXQ6IHRoZXJlZm9yZSB0aGUgZmF0aGVyJiM4MjE3O3MgZ2Vub3R5cGUgaXMgWA==aA==WS4gVGhlIGNoaWxkJiM4MjE3O3MgbW90aGVyIGhhZCBhIGJyb3RoZXIgd2hvIHdhcyBoYXMgdGhlIHJlY2Vzc2l2ZSB0cmFpdC4gVGhlcmVmb3JlID8mIzgyMTc7cyBncmFuZG1vdGhlciBoYWQgdG8gYmUgYSBjYXJyaWVyLCBhbmQgPyYjODIxNztzIG1vdGhlciBoYXMgYSA1MCUgY2hhbmNlIG9mIGJlaW5nIGEgY2Fycmllci4=

[Qq]

Now use the rule of multiplication. It’s already established in the question that the child is a girl. There’s a 100% chance that she’ll inherit the recessive allele from her father (that’s how she wound up being a girl in the first place, right?) There’s a 1/2 chance that the mother is a carrier. And, if mom’s a carrier, there’s a 1/2 chance that she’ll pass on her Xh allele, producing a daughter that’s XhXh. Multiply these probabilities out, and you’ll have your answer.

[c]IDEwMCU=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgaG93IHRvIHRoaW5rIGFib3V0IHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24uIEltYWdpbmUgdGhhdCB0aGUgdHJhaXQgdW5kZXIgZGlzY3Vzc2lvbiBpcyBoZW1vcGhpbGlhLiBGb3IgY2xhcml0eSwgbGV0JiM4MjE3O3MgaGF2ZSAmIzgyMjA7SCYjODIyMTsgc3RhbmQgZm9yIHRoZSBub3JtYWwgYWxsZWxlLCBhbmQgJiM4MjIwO2gmIzgyMjE7IGZvciB0aGUgYWxsZWxlIHRoYXQgY2F1c2VzIHRoZSByZWNlc3NpdmUgY29uZGl0aW9uLsKgIFRoZSBjaGlsZCBhdCA=Pw==wqBoYXMgYSBmYXRoZXIgd2hvIGhhcyB0aGUgdHJhaXQ6IHRoZXJlZm9yZSB0aGUgZmF0aGVyJiM4MjE3O3MgZ2Vub3R5cGUgaXMgWA==aA==WS4gVGhlIGNoaWxkJiM4MjE3O3MgbW90aGVyIGhhZCBhIGJyb3RoZXIgd2hvIHdhcyBoYXMgdGhlIHJlY2Vzc2l2ZSB0cmFpdC4gVGhlcmVmb3JlID8mIzgyMTc7cyBncmFuZG1vdGhlciBoYWQgdG8gYmUgYSBjYXJyaWVyLCBhbmQgPyYjODIxNztzIG1vdGhlciBoYXMgYSA1MCUgY2hhbmNlIG9mIGJlaW5nIGEgY2Fycmllci4=

[Qq]

Now use the rule of multiplication. It’s already established in the question that the child is a girl. There’s a 100% chance that she’ll inherit the recessive allele from her father (that’s how she wound up being a girl in the first place, right?) There’s a 1/2 chance that the mother is a carrier. And, if mom’s a carrier, there’s a 1/2 chance that she’ll pass on her Xh allele, producing a daughter that’s XhXh. Multiply these probabilities out, and you’ll have your answer.

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|9715d94602f34″ question_number=”47″] Hemophilia A is an X-linked recessive disorder in which the ability of the blood to clot is severely reduced. Hemophilia is caused by a mutation in the gene for the clotting component Factor VIII.

Jasmine’s brother has hemophilia A, but neither Jasmine nor anyone else in her family show symptoms of the disorder.

If Jasmine has a son, what is the probability that he will have hemophilia?

[c]IDAl[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBCZWNhdXNlIEphc21pbmUmIzgyMTc7cyBicm90aGVyIGlzIGEgaGVtb3BoaWxpYWMsIHdlIGtub3cgdGhhdCBoaXMgZ2Vub3R5cGUgaXMgWA==aA==WS4gQmVjYXVzZSB0aGUgaGVtb3BoaWxpYSBhbGxlbGUgaXMgb24gdGhlIFggY2hyb21vc29tZSwgdGhlbiBKYXNtaW5lJiM4MjE3O3MgYnJvdGhlciBoYWQgdG8gaGF2ZSBpbmhlcml0ZWQgdGhlIGNvbmRpdGlvbiBmcm9tIGhpcyBhbmQgSmFzbWluZSYjODIxNztzIG1vdGhlciwgd2hvIG11c3QgYmUgYSBjYXJyaWVyIChpdCYjODIxNztzIHN0YXRlZCBpbiB0aGUgcHJvYmxlbSB0aGF0IHNoZSBkb2VzbiYjODIxNzt0IGhhdmUgdGhlIGNvbmRpdGlvbiwgc28gc2hlIGNhbiBvbmx5IGJlIGEgY2Fycmllciku

Cg==

SWYgSmFzbWluZSYjODIxNztzIG1vdGhlciB3YXMgYSBjYXJyaWVyIGFuZCBoZXIgZmF0aGVyIHdhcyBub3QgYSBoZW1vcGhpbGlhYyAoYWxzbyBrbm93biBmcm9tIHRoZSBwcm9ibGVtKSwgdGhlbiBKYXNtaW5lIGhhcyBhIDEvMiBjaGFuY2Ugb2YgYmVpbmcgYSBjYXJyaWVyLiBBbmQgaWYgc2hlIHdlcmUgYSBjYXJyaWVyLCB0aGVuIHNoZSYjODIxNztkIGhhdmUgYSAxLzIgY2hhbmNlIG9mIHBhc3Npbmcgb24gdGhlIGFsbGVsZSB0byBoZXIgbWFsZSBjaGlsZC4gV2hhdCYjODIxNztzIDEvMiB0aW1lcyAxLzI/[Qq]

[c]IDI1 JQ==[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCEgVGhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIDUwJSBwcm9iYWJpbGl0eSB0aGF0IEphc21pbmUgaXMgYSBjYXJyaWVyLCBhbmQgdGhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIDUwJSBwcm9iYWJpbGl0eSB0aGF0IGEgY2FycmllciB3aWxsIHBhc3Mgb24gYW4gWCBjaHJvbW9zb21lIHdpdGggdGhlIGhlbW9waGlsaWEgYWxsZWxlIG9uIHRvIGhlciBzb24uIDUwJSBvZiA1MCUgaXMgMjUlLg==[Qq]

[c]IDUwJQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBCZWNhdXNlIEphc21pbmUmIzgyMTc7cyBicm90aGVyIGlzIGEgaGVtb3BoaWxpYWMswqAgd2Uga25vdyB0aGF0IGhpcyBnZW5vdHlwZSBpcyBYaA==WS4gQmVjYXVzZSB0aGUgaGVtb3BoaWxpYSBhbGxlbGUgaXMgb24gdGhlIFggY2hyb21vc29tZSwgdGhlbiBKYXNtaW5lJiM4MjE3O3MgYnJvdGhlciBoYWQgdG8gaGF2ZSBpbmhlcml0ZWQgdGhlIGNvbmRpdGlvbiBmcm9tIGhpcyBhbmQgSmFzbWluZSYjODIxNztzIG1vdGhlciwgd2hvIG11c3QgYmUgYSBjYXJyaWVyIChpdCYjODIxNztzIHN0YXRlZCBpbiB0aGUgcHJvYmxlbSB0aGF0IHNoZSBkb2VzbiYjODIxNzt0IGhhdmUgdGhlIGNvbmRpdGlvbiwgc28gc2hlIGNhbiBvbmx5IGJlIGEgY2Fycmllciku

Cg==

SWYgSmFzbWluZSYjODIxNztzIG1vdGhlciB3YXMgYSBjYXJyaWVyIGFuZCBoZXIgZmF0aGVyIHdhcyBub3QgYSBoZW1vcGhpbGlhYyAoYWxzbyBrbm93biBmcm9tIHRoZSBwcm9ibGVtKSwgdGhlbiBKYXNtaW5lIGhlcnNlbGYgaGFzIGEgMS8yIGNoYW5jZSBvZiBiZWluZyBhIGNhcnJpZXIuIEFuZCBpZiBzaGUgd2VyZSBhIGNhcnJpZXIsIHRoZW4gc2hlJiM4MjE3O2QgaGF2ZSBhIDEvMiBjaGFuY2Ugb2YgcGFzc2luZyBvbiB0aGUgYWxsZWxlIHRvIGhlciBtYWxlIGNoaWxkLiBXaGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgMS8yIHRpbWVzIDEvMj8=[Qq]

[c]IDc1JQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBCZWNhdXNlIEphc21pbmUmIzgyMTc7cyBicm90aGVyIGlzIGEgaGVtb3BoaWxpYWMswqAgd2Uga25vdyB0aGF0IGhpcyBnZW5vdHlwZSBpcyBYaA==WS4gQmVjYXVzZSB0aGUgaGVtb3BoaWxpYSBhbGxlbGUgaXMgb24gdGhlIFggY2hyb21vc29tZSwgdGhlbiBKYXNtaW5lJiM4MjE3O3MgYnJvdGhlciBoYWQgdG8gaGF2ZSBpbmhlcml0ZWQgdGhlIGNvbmRpdGlvbiBmcm9tIGhpcyBhbmQgSmFzbWluZSYjODIxNztzIG1vdGhlciwgd2hvIG11c3QgYmUgYSBjYXJyaWVyIChpdCYjODIxNztzIHN0YXRlZCBpbiB0aGUgcHJvYmxlbSB0aGF0IHNoZSBkb2VzbiYjODIxNzt0IGhhdmUgdGhlIGNvbmRpdGlvbiwgc28gc2hlIGNhbiBvbmx5IGJlIGEgY2Fycmllciku

Cg==

SWYgSmFzbWluZSYjODIxNztzIG1vdGhlciB3YXMgYSBjYXJyaWVyIGFuZCBoZXIgZmF0aGVyIHdhcyBub3QgYSBoZW1vcGhpbGlhYyAoYWxzbyBrbm93biBmcm9tIHRoZSBwcm9ibGVtKSwgdGhlbiBKYXNtaW5lIGhlcnNlbGYgaGFzIGEgMS8yIGNoYW5jZSBvZiBiZWluZyBhIGNhcnJpZXIuIEFuZCBpZiBzaGUgd2VyZSBhIGNhcnJpZXIsIHRoZW4gc2hlJiM4MjE3O2QgaGF2ZSBhIDEvMiBjaGFuY2Ugb2YgcGFzc2luZyBvbiB0aGUgYWxsZWxlIHRvIGhlciBtYWxlIGNoaWxkLiBXaGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgMS8yIHRpbWVzIDEvMj8=[Qq]

[c]IDEwMCU=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBCZWNhdXNlIEphc21pbmUmIzgyMTc7cyBicm90aGVyIGlzIGEgaGVtb3BoaWxpYWMswqAgd2Uga25vdyB0aGF0IGhpcyBnZW5vdHlwZSBpcyBYaA==WS4gQmVjYXVzZSB0aGUgaGVtb3BoaWxpYSBhbGxlbGUgaXMgb24gdGhlIFggY2hyb21vc29tZSwgdGhlbiBKYXNtaW5lJiM4MjE3O3MgYnJvdGhlciBoYWQgdG8gaGF2ZSBpbmhlcml0ZWQgdGhlIGNvbmRpdGlvbiBmcm9tIGhpcyBhbmQgSmFzbWluZSYjODIxNztzIG1vdGhlciwgd2hvIG11c3QgYmUgYSBjYXJyaWVyIChpdCYjODIxNztzIHN0YXRlZCBpbiB0aGUgcHJvYmxlbSB0aGF0IHNoZSBkb2VzbiYjODIxNzt0IGhhdmUgdGhlIGNvbmRpdGlvbiwgc28gc2hlIGNhbiBvbmx5IGJlIGEgY2Fycmllciku

Cg==

SWYgSmFzbWluZSYjODIxNztzIG1vdGhlciB3YXMgYSBjYXJyaWVyIGFuZCBoZXIgZmF0aGVyIHdhcyBub3QgYSBoZW1vcGhpbGlhYyAoYWxzbyBrbm93biBmcm9tIHRoZSBwcm9ibGVtKSwgdGhlbiBKYXNtaW5lIGhlcnNlbGYgaGFzIGEgMS8yIGNoYW5jZSBvZiBiZWluZyBhIGNhcnJpZXIuIEFuZCBpZiBzaGUgd2VyZSBhIGNhcnJpZXIsIHRoZW4gc2hlJiM4MjE3O2QgaGF2ZSBhIDEvMiBjaGFuY2Ugb2YgcGFzc2luZyBvbiB0aGUgYWxsZWxlIHRvIGhlciBtYWxlIGNoaWxkLiBXaGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgMS8yIHRpbWVzIDEvMj8=[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|9709c54854334″ question_number=”48″] Hemophilia A is an X-linked recessive disorder in which the ability of the blood to clot is severely reduced. Hemophilia is caused by a mutation in the gene for the clotting component Factor VIII.

Jasmine’s brother has hemophilia A, but neither Jasmine nor anyone else in her family show symptoms of the disorder.

If Jasmine’s husband had hemophilia, what would the probability be of their son being a hemophiliac?

[c]IDAl[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBCZWNhdXNlIEphc21pbmUmIzgyMTc7cyBicm90aGVyIGlzIGEgaGVtb3BoaWxpYWMsIHdlIGtub3cgdGhhdCBoaXMgZ2Vub3R5cGUgaXMgWA==aA==WS4gQmVjYXVzZSB0aGUgaGVtb3BoaWxpYSBhbGxlbGUgaXMgb24gdGhlIFggY2hyb21vc29tZSwgdGhlbiBKYXNtaW5lJiM4MjE3O3MgYnJvdGhlciBoYWQgdG8gaGF2ZSBpbmhlcml0ZWQgdGhlIGNvbmRpdGlvbiBmcm9tIGhpcyBhbmQgSmFzbWluZSYjODIxNztzIG1vdGhlciwgd2hvIG11c3QgYmUgYSBjYXJyaWVyIChpdCYjODIxNztzIHN0YXRlZCBpbiB0aGUgcHJvYmxlbSB0aGF0IHNoZSBkb2VzbiYjODIxNzt0IGhhdmUgdGhlIGNvbmRpdGlvbiwgc28gc2hlIGNhbiBvbmx5IGJlIGEgY2Fycmllciku

Cg==

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[Qq]

[c]IDI1 JQ==[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCEgVGhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIDUwJSBwcm9iYWJpbGl0eSB0aGF0IEphc21pbmUgaXMgYSBjYXJyaWVyLCBhbmQgdGhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIDUwJSBwcm9iYWJpbGl0eSB0aGF0IGEgY2FycmllciB3aWxsIHBhc3Mgb24gYW4gWCBjaHJvbW9zb21lIHdpdGggdGhlIGhlbW9waGlsaWEgYWxsZWxlIG9uIHRvIGhlciBzb24uIEFzIHlvdSBtdXN0IGhhdmUgdW5kZXJzdG9vZCwgdGhlIGZhdGhlciYjODIxNztzIHN0YXR1cyBhcyBhIGhlbW9waGlsaWFjIGlzIGlycmVsZXZhbnQsIHNpbmNlIGhlJiM4MjE3O2xsIG9ubHkgcGFzcyBvbiBoaXMgWCBjaHJvbW9zb21lIHRvIGhpcyBkYXVnaHRlcnMuIDUwJSBvZiA1MCUgaXMgMjUlLg==[Qq]

[c]IDUwJQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBCZWNhdXNlIEphc21pbmUmIzgyMTc7cyBicm90aGVyIGlzIGEgaGVtb3BoaWxpYWMsIHdlIGtub3cgdGhhdCBoaXMgZ2Vub3R5cGUgaXMgWA==aA==WS4gQmVjYXVzZSB0aGUgaGVtb3BoaWxpYSBhbGxlbGUgaXMgb24gdGhlIFggY2hyb21vc29tZSwgdGhlbiBKYXNtaW5lJiM4MjE3O3MgYnJvdGhlciBoYWQgdG8gaGF2ZSBpbmhlcml0ZWQgdGhlIGNvbmRpdGlvbiBmcm9tIGhpcyBhbmQgSmFzbWluZSYjODIxNztzIG1vdGhlciwgd2hvIG11c3QgYmUgYSBjYXJyaWVyIChpdCYjODIxNztzIHN0YXRlZCBpbiB0aGUgcHJvYmxlbSB0aGF0IHNoZSBkb2VzbiYjODIxNzt0IGhhdmUgdGhlIGNvbmRpdGlvbiwgc28gc2hlIGNhbiBvbmx5IGJlIGEgY2Fycmllciku

Cg==

SWYgSmFzbWluZSYjODIxNztzIG1vdGhlciB3YXMgYSBjYXJyaWVyIGFuZCBKYXNtaW5lJiM4MjE3O3MgZmF0aGVyIHdhcyBub3QgYSBoZW1vcGhpbGlhYyAoYWxzbyBrbm93biBmcm9tIHRoZSBwcm9ibGVtKSwgdGhlbiBKYXNtaW5lIGhlcnNlbGYgaGFzIGEgMS8yIGNoYW5jZSBvZiBiZWluZyBhIGNhcnJpZXIuIEphc21pbmUmIzgyMTc7cyBtYXRlJiM4MjE3O3Mgc3RhdHVzIGFzIGEgaGVtb3BoaWxpYWMgaXMgaXJyZWxldmFudCwgYmVjYXVzZSBhIGZhdGhlciBwYXNzZXMgb24gaGlzIFkgY2hyb21vc29tZSB0byBoaXMgc29ucywgbm90IGhpcyBYIGNocm9tb3NvbWUpLiBOb3cgbXVsdGlwbHkgdGhlIHByb2JhYmlsaXR5IHRoYXQgSmFzbWluZSBpcyBhIGNhcnJpZXIgYnkgdGhlIHByb2JhYmlsaXR5IHRoYXQgc2hlIHdvdWxkIHBhc3Mgb24gaGVyIGhlbW9waGlsaWEgYWxsZWxlLCBhbmQgeW91JiM4MjE3O2xsIGhhdmUgdGhlIGFuc3dlci4=[Qq]

[c]IDc1JQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBCZWNhdXNlIEphc21pbmUmIzgyMTc7cyBicm90aGVyIGlzIGEgaGVtb3BoaWxpYWMsIHdlIGtub3cgdGhhdCBoaXMgZ2Vub3R5cGUgaXMgWA==aA==WS4gQmVjYXVzZSB0aGUgaGVtb3BoaWxpYSBhbGxlbGUgaXMgb24gdGhlIFggY2hyb21vc29tZSwgdGhlbiBKYXNtaW5lJiM4MjE3O3MgYnJvdGhlciBoYWQgdG8gaGF2ZSBpbmhlcml0ZWQgdGhlIGNvbmRpdGlvbiBmcm9tIGhpcyBhbmQgSmFzbWluZSYjODIxNztzIG1vdGhlciwgd2hvIG11c3QgYmUgYSBjYXJyaWVyIChpdCYjODIxNztzIHN0YXRlZCBpbiB0aGUgcHJvYmxlbSB0aGF0IHNoZSBkb2VzbiYjODIxNzt0IGhhdmUgdGhlIGNvbmRpdGlvbiwgc28gc2hlIGNhbiBvbmx5IGJlIGEgY2Fycmllciku

Cg==

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[Qq]

[c]IDEwMCU=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBCZWNhdXNlIEphc21pbmUmIzgyMTc7cyBicm90aGVyIGlzIGEgaGVtb3BoaWxpYWMsIHdlIGtub3cgdGhhdCBoaXMgZ2Vub3R5cGUgaXMgWA==aA==WS4gQmVjYXVzZSB0aGUgaGVtb3BoaWxpYSBhbGxlbGUgaXMgb24gdGhlIFggY2hyb21vc29tZSwgdGhlbiBKYXNtaW5lJiM4MjE3O3MgYnJvdGhlciBoYWQgdG8gaGF2ZSBpbmhlcml0ZWQgdGhlIGNvbmRpdGlvbiBmcm9tIGhpcyBhbmQgSmFzbWluZSYjODIxNztzIG1vdGhlciwgd2hvIG11c3QgYmUgYSBjYXJyaWVyIChpdCYjODIxNztzIHN0YXRlZCBpbiB0aGUgcHJvYmxlbSB0aGF0IHNoZSBkb2VzbiYjODIxNzt0IGhhdmUgdGhlIGNvbmRpdGlvbiwgc28gc2hlIGNhbiBvbmx5IGJlIGEgY2Fycmllciku

Cg==

SWYgSmFzbWluZSYjODIxNztzIG1vdGhlciB3YXMgYSBjYXJyaWVyIGFuZCBKYXNtaW5lJiM4MjE3O3MgZmF0aGVyIHdhcyBub3QgYSBoZW1vcGhpbGlhYyAoYWxzbyBrbm93biBmcm9tIHRoZSBwcm9ibGVtKSwgdGhlbiBKYXNtaW5lIGhlcnNlbGYgaGFzIGEgMS8yIGNoYW5jZSBvZiBiZWluZyBhIGNhcnJpZXIuIEphc21pbmUmIzgyMTc7cyBtYXRlJiM4MjE3O3Mgc3RhdHVzIGFzIGEgaGVtb3BoaWxpYWMgaXMgaXJyZWxldmFudCwgYmVjYXVzZSBhIGZhdGhlciBwYXNzZXMgb24gaGlzIFkgY2hyb21vc29tZSB0byBoaXMgc29ucywgbm90IGhpcyBYIGNocm9tb3NvbWUpLiBOb3cgbXVsdGlwbHkgdGhlIHByb2JhYmlsaXR5IHRoYXQgSmFzbWluZSBpcyBhIGNhcnJpZXIgYnkgdGhlIHByb2JhYmlsaXR5IHRoYXQgc2hlIHdvdWxkIHBhc3Mgb24gaGVyIGhlbW9waGlsaWEgYWxsZWxlLCBhbmQgeW91JiM4MjE3O2xsIGhhdmUgdGhlIGFuc3dlci4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|96fd66c928f34″ question_number=”49″] In cats, the pattern of tabby strips can be vertical (referred to as “mackerel tabby”) or blotched (referred to as “blotched tabby”), as shown below.

When true breeding mackerel tabbies are bred with true breeding blotched tabbies, all of the F1 offspring are mackerel tabbies.

Two F1 mackerel tabbies are crossed with one another. What’s the probability that a kitten resulting from this mating will be mackerel tabby?

[c]IDAl[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgaG93IHRvIHRoaW5rIGFib3V0IHRoaXMgcHJvYmxlbS4gWW91IGtub3cgdGhhdCB0aGF0IHRoZSBtYWNrZXJlbCB0YWJieSB0cmFpdCBpcyBkb21pbmFudCAoYmVjYXVzZSBhbGwgb2YgdGhlIEY=MQ==IG9mZnNwcmluZyBhcmUgbWFja2VyZWwpLiBBbmQgeW91IGFsc28ga25vdyB0aGF0IHRoZSBGMQ==cyBhcmUgaGV0ZXJvenlnb3Rlcy4gSWYgeW91IGhhdmUgdGhlIGxldHRlciA=[Qq]M represent the allele for “mackerel” and m represent the allele for “blotched, then you’re crossing Mm x Mm, and you’d set up the Punnett square as follows:

 M m
 M
 m


Now you draw it out, and figure out what percentage of the offspring will have genotype
MM or Mm.

[c]IDI1JQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgaG93IHRvIHRoaW5rIGFib3V0IHRoaXMgcHJvYmxlbS4gWW91IGtub3cgdGhhdCB0aGF0IHRoZSBtYWNrZXJlbCB0YWJieSB0cmFpdCBpcyBkb21pbmFudCAoYmVjYXVzZSBhbGwgb2YgdGhlIEY=MQ==IG9mZnNwcmluZyBhcmUgbWFja2VyZWwpLiBBbmQgeW91IGFsc28ga25vdyB0aGF0IHRoZSBGMQ==cyBhcmUgaGV0ZXJvenlnb3Rlcy4gSWYgeW91IGhhdmUgdGhlIGxldHRlciA=[Qq]M represent the allele for “mackerel” and m represent the allele for “blotched, then you’re crossing Mm x Mm, and you’d set up the Punnett square as follows:

 M m
 M
 m

Now you draw it out, and figure out what percentage of the offspring will have genotype MM or Mm.

[c]IDUwJQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgaG93IHRvIHRoaW5rIGFib3V0IHRoaXMgcHJvYmxlbS4gWW91IGtub3cgdGhhdCB0aGF0IHRoZSBtYWNrZXJlbCB0YWJieSB0cmFpdCBpcyBkb21pbmFudCAoYmVjYXVzZSBhbGwgb2YgdGhlIEY=MQ==IG9mZnNwcmluZyBhcmUgbWFja2VyZWwpLiBBbmQgeW91IGFsc28ga25vdyB0aGF0IHRoZSBGMQ==cyBhcmUgaGV0ZXJvenlnb3Rlcy4gSWYgeW91IGhhdmUgdGhlIGxldHRlciA=[Qq]M represent the allele for “mackerel” and m represent the allele for “blotched, then you’re crossing Mm x Mm, and you’d set up

the Punnett square as follows:

 M m
 M
 m

Now you draw it out, and figure out what percentage of the offspring will have genotype MM or Mm.

[c]IDc1 JQ==[Qq]

[f]IFdheSB0byBnbyEgVGhlIHBlcmNlbnRhZ2Ugb2Ygb2Zmc3ByaW5nIHRoYXQgd2lsbCBzaG93IHRoZSBkb21pbmFudCB0cmFpdCB3aWxsIGJlIDc1JSAoMjUlIGhvbW96eWdvdXMgZG9taW5hbnQsIGFuZCA1MCUgaGV0ZXJvenlnb3Rlcyku[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|96ee8efd5b734″ question_number=”50″] In cats, the pattern of tabby strips can be vertical (referred to as “mackerel tabby”) or blotched (referred to as “blotched tabby”), as shown below.

When true breeding mackerel tabbies are bred with true breeding blotched tabbies, all of the F1 offspring are mackerel tabbies.

An F1 mackerel tabby is crossed with a blotched tabby. What’s the probability that a kitten resulting from this mating will be blotched tabby?

[c]IDAl[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgaG93IHRvIHRoaW5rIGFib3V0IHRoaXMgcHJvYmxlbS4gWW91IGtub3cgdGhhdCB0aGF0IHRoZSBtYWNrZXJlbCB0YWJieSB0cmFpdCBpcyBkb21pbmFudCAoYmVjYXVzZSBhbGwgb2YgdGhlIEY=MQ==IG9mZnNwcmluZyBhcmUgbWFja2VyZWwpLiBBbmQgeW91IGFsc28ga25vdyB0aGF0IHRoZSBGMQ==cyBhcmUgaGV0ZXJvenlnb3Rlcy4gQmVjYXVzZSB0aGUgYWxsZWxlIGZvciBibG90Y2hlZCBpcyByZWNlc3NpdmUsIGEgYmxvdGNoZWQgdGFiYnkgaGFzIHRvIGJlIGhvbW96eWdvdXMu

[Qq]

If you let the letter M represent the allele for “mackerel” and m represent the allele for “blotched, then you’re crossing Mm x mm, and you’d set up the Punnett square as follows:

 M m
 m
 m

Now you draw it out, and figure out what percentage of the offspring will have genotype mm (the only genotype you can have if you’re blotched tabby).

[c]IDI1JQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgaG93IHRvIHRoaW5rIGFib3V0IHRoaXMgcHJvYmxlbS4gWW91IGtub3cgdGhhdCB0aGF0IHRoZSBtYWNrZXJlbCB0YWJieSB0cmFpdCBpcyBkb21pbmFudCAoYmVjYXVzZSBhbGwgb2YgdGhlIEY=MQ==IG9mZnNwcmluZyBhcmUgbWFja2VyZWwpLiBBbmQgeW91IGFsc28ga25vdyB0aGF0IHRoZSBGMQ==cyBhcmUgaGV0ZXJvenlnb3Rlcy4gQmVjYXVzZSB0aGUgYWxsZWxlIGZvciBibG90Y2hlZCBpcyByZWNlc3NpdmUsIGEgYmxvdGNoZWQgdGFiYnkgaGFzIHRvIGJlIGhvbW96eWdvdXMu

[Qq]

If you let the letter M represent the allele for “mackerel” and m represent the allele for “blotched, then you’re crossing Mm x mm, and you’d set up the Punnett square as follows:

 M m
 m
 m

Now you draw it out, and figure out what percentage of the offspring will have genotype mm (the only genotype you can have if you’re blotched tabby).

[c]IDUw JQ==[Qq]

[f]IEZhYnVsb3VzLiBJZiB5b3UgbGV0IHRoZSBsZXR0ZXIgTQ==IHJlcHJlc2VudCB0aGUgYWxsZWxlIGZvciAmIzgyMjA7bWFja2VyZWwmIzgyMjE7IGFuZCA=bQ==IHJlcHJlc2VudCB0aGUgYWxsZWxlIGZvciAmIzgyMjA7YmxvdGNoZWQsIHRoZW4geW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIGNyb3NzaW5nIA==[Qq]Mm x mm. 50% of the offspring will be blotched tabby, with genotype mm.

[c]IDc1JQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgaG93IHRvIHRoaW5rIGFib3V0IHRoaXMgcHJvYmxlbS4gWW91IGtub3cgdGhhdCB0aGF0IHRoZSBtYWNrZXJlbCB0YWJieSB0cmFpdCBpcyBkb21pbmFudCAoYmVjYXVzZSBhbGwgb2YgdGhlIEY=MQ==IG9mZnNwcmluZyBhcmUgbWFja2VyZWwpLiBBbmQgeW91IGFsc28ga25vdyB0aGF0IHRoZSBGMQ==cyBhcmUgaGV0ZXJvenlnb3Rlcy4gQmVjYXVzZSB0aGUgYWxsZWxlIGZvciBibG90Y2hlZCBpcyByZWNlc3NpdmUsIGEgYmxvdGNoZWQgdGFiYnkgaGFzIHRvIGJlIGhvbW96eWdvdXMu

[Qq]

If you let the letter M represent the allele for “mackerel” and m represent the allele for “blotched, then you’re crossing Mm x mm, and you’d set up

the Punnett square as follows:

 M m
 m
 m

Now you draw it out, and figure out what percentage of the offspring will have genotype mm (the only genotype you can have if you’re blotched tabby).

[c]IDEwMCU=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgaG93IHRvIHRoaW5rIGFib3V0IHRoaXMgcHJvYmxlbS4gWW91IGtub3cgdGhhdCB0aGF0IHRoZSBtYWNrZXJlbCB0YWJieSB0cmFpdCBpcyBkb21pbmFudCAoYmVjYXVzZSBhbGwgb2YgdGhlIEY=MQ==IG9mZnNwcmluZyBhcmUgbWFja2VyZWwpLiBBbmQgeW91IGFsc28ga25vdyB0aGF0IHRoZSBGMQ==cyBhcmUgaGV0ZXJvenlnb3Rlcy4gQmVjYXVzZSB0aGUgYWxsZWxlIGZvciBibG90Y2hlZCBpcyByZWNlc3NpdmUsIGEgYmxvdGNoZWQgdGFiYnkgaGFzIHRvIGJlIGhvbW96eWdvdXMu

[Qq]

If you let the letter M represent the allele for “mackerel” and m represent the allele for “blotched, then you’re crossing Mm x mm, and you’d set up

the Punnett square as follows:

 M m
 m
 m

Now you draw it out, and figure out what percentage of the offspring will have genotype mm (the only genotype you can have if you’re blotched tabby).

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|96dfdc724c334″ question_number=”51″] The expression of fruit pigment in a newly developed variety of apple is under genetic control. The apples can have three phenotypes: no pigment, yellow color or green color. Two genes are involved in the control of pigment production. Each of the genes has two alleles as shown.

Gene 1 Gene 2
I: no color production G: yellow fruit
i: color production g: green fruit

These two genes are unlinked. This means that

[c]IHRoZSBnZW5lcyBhc3Nvcn QgaW5kZXBlbmRlbnRseS4=[Qq]

[f]IEV4YWN0bHkuIElmIHRoZSBnZW5lcyBhcmUgbm90IGxpbmtlZCwgdGhlbiB0aGV5JiM4MjE3O2xsIGFzc29ydCBpbmRlcGVuZGVudGx5Lg==[Qq]

[c]IHRoZSBnZW5lcyBhcmUgY2xvc2UgdG9nZXRoZXIgb24gdGhlIHNhbWUgY2hyb21vc29tZS4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBJZiB0aGUgZ2VuZXMgYXJlIHVubGlua2VkLCB0aGVuIHRoZXkmIzgyMTc7cmUgbm90IG9uIHRoZSBzYW1lIGNocm9tb3NvbWUuIFJlbWVtYmVyIHRoYXQgbmV4dCB0aW1lIHlvdSBzZWUgdGhpcyBxdWVzdGlvbiwgYW5kIGNob29zZSBhbm90aGVyIGFuc3dlci4=[Qq]

[c]IHRoZXJlIGlzIHJlY29tYmluYXRpb24gdGhyb3VnaCBjcm9zc2luZyBvdmVyIGJldHdlZW4gdGhlIHR3byBnZW5lcyBkdXJpbmcgbWVpb3Npcy4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBSZWNvbWJpbmF0aW9uIHRocm91Z2ggY3Jvc3Npbmcgb3ZlciBvbmx5IG9jY3VycyBpbiBnZW5lcyB0aGF0IGFyZSBsaW5rZWQgb24gdGhlIHNhbWUgY2hyb21vc29tZS4gVGhlc2UgZ2VuZXMgYXJlIHVubGlua2VkLsKgUmVtZW1iZXIgdGhhdCBuZXh0IHRpbWUgeW91IHNlZSB0aGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uLCBhbmQgY2hvb3NlIGFub3RoZXIgYW5zd2VyLg==[Qq]

[c]IHBhcnRpY3VsYXIgY29tYmluYXRpb25zIG9mIGFsbGVsZXMgb2YgdGhlc2UgZ2VuZXMgYXJlIGFsd2F5cyBpbmhlcml0ZWQgdG9nZXRoZXIu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUga2V5IGlkZWEgaXMgdGhhdCB0aGVzZSBnZW5lcyAoYW5kIHRoZWlyIGFsbGVsZXMpIGFyZSB1bmxpbmtlZC4gQXMgYSByZXN1bHQsIHRoZXJlIHdvbiYjODIxNzt0IGJlIHBhcnRpY3VsYXIgY29tYmluYXRpb25zIG9mIGFsbGVsZXMgdGhhdCBhcmUgYWx3YXlzIGluaGVyaXRlZCB0b2dldGhlci4gSW5zdGVhZCwgdGhleSYjODIxNztsbCBiZSBpbmhlcml0ZWQgaW5kZXBlbmRlbnRseS4gUmVtZW1iZXIgdGhhdCBmb3IgdGhlIG5leHQgdGltZSB5b3UmIzgyMTc7bGwgc2VlIHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24sIGFuZCBjaG9vc2UgYW5vdGhlciBhbnN3ZXIu[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|96d29e6eab734″ question_number=”52″] The expression of fruit pigment in a newly developed variety of apple is under genetic control. The apples can have three phenotypes: no pigment, yellow color or green color. Two genes are involved in the control of pigment production. Each of the genes has two alleles as shown.

Gene 1 Gene 2
I: no color production G: yellow fruit
i: color production g: green fruit

The fruit color of plants with the genotype IiGg

[c]IHllbGxvdy4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgaG93IHRvIHRoaW5rIGFib3V0IHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24uIExvb2sgY2FyZWZ1bGx5IGF0IHRoZSB0YWJsZSBzaG93aW5nIHRoZSBlZmZlY3RzIG9mIHRoZSB0d28gYWxsZWxlcyBmb3IgZ2VuZSA=MQ==LiBJZiBhIHBsYW50IGhhcyB0aGUgZG9taW5hbnQgYWxsZWxlIEk=LCB3aGF0IGhhcHBlbnMgdG8gZnJ1aXQgY29sb3I/IE9uY2UgeW91IGhhdmUgdGhhdCBmaWd1cmVkIG91dCwgeW91IHNob3VsZCBoYXZlIG5vIHRyb3VibGUgd2l0aCB0aGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uIHRoZSBuZXh0IHRpbWUgeW91IHNlZSBpdC4=[Qq]

[c]IGdyZWVuLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgaG93IHRvIHRoaW5rIGFib3V0IHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24uIExvb2sgY2FyZWZ1bGx5IGF0IHRoZSB0YWJsZSBzaG93aW5nIHRoZSBlZmZlY3RzIG9mIHRoZSB0d28gYWxsZWxlcyBmb3IgZ2VuZQ==IDE=LiBJZiBhIHBsYW50IGhhcyB0aGUgZG9taW5hbnQgYWxsZWxlIEk=LCB3aGF0IGhhcHBlbnMgdG8gZnJ1aXQgY29sb3I/IE9uY2UgeW91IGhhdmUgdGhhdCBmaWd1cmVkIG91dCwgeW91IHNob3VsZCBoYXZlIG5vIHRyb3VibGUgd2l0aCB0aGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uIHRoZSBuZXh0IHRpbWUgeW91IHNlZSBpdC4=[Qq]

[c]IG5vIGNv bG9yLg==[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCEgaWYgdGhlIHBsYW50IGhhcyB0aGUgYWxsZWxlIEk=LCB0aGVuIGl0IHdvbiYjODIxNzt0IGV4cHJlc3MgYW55IGNvbG9yLg==[Qq]

[c]IGdyZWVuIGFuZCB5ZWxsb3cu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgaG93IHRvIHRoaW5rIGFib3V0IHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24uIExvb2sgY2FyZWZ1bGx5IGF0IHRoZSB0YWJsZSBzaG93aW5nIHRoZSBlZmZlY3RzIG9mIHRoZSB0d28gYWxsZWxlcyBmb3IgZ2VuZSA=MQ==LiBJZiBhIHBsYW50IGhhcyB0aGUgZG9taW5hbnQgYWxsZWxlIEk=LCB3aGF0IGhhcHBlbnMgdG8gZnJ1aXQgY29sb3I/IE9uY2UgeW91IGhhdmUgdGhhdCBmaWd1cmVkIG91dCwgeW91IHNob3VsZCBoYXZlIG5vIHRyb3VibGUgd2l0aCB0aGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uIHRoZSBuZXh0IHRpbWUgeW91IHNlZSBpdC4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|96c5f56e03b34″ question_number=”53″] The expression of fruit pigment in a newly developed variety of apple is under genetic control. The apples can have three phenotypes: no pigment, yellow color or green color. Two genes are involved in the control of pigment production. Each of the genes has two alleles as shown.

Gene 1 Gene 2
I: no color production G: yellow fruit
i: color production g: green fruit

In a cross between two plants with genotypes IiGg and iiGg, the proportion of offspring with fruit

[c]IHdpdGggbm8gY29s b3IgaXMgMS8yLg==[Qq]

[f]IEZhYnVsb3VzLiBJZiB5b3UganVzdCBsb29rIGF0IHRoZSA=SQ==IGFsbGVsZSwgdGhlbiB0aGUgY3Jvc3MgaXMgYmV0d2VlbiA=SWk=IGFuZCA=[Qq]ii. Half of the offspring will have the I allele, which means no color (and you can pretty much ignore the rest).

[c]IHRoYXQgYXJlIGdyZWVuIGlzIDMvOC4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUbyBrZWVwIHRoaW5ncyBzaW1wbGUsIGp1c3QgZm9jdXMgb24gdGhlwqA=SQ==IGFsbGVsZS4gSWYgeW91IHNldCB1cCBhIFB1bm5ldHQgc3F1YXJlIHJlcHJlc2VudGluZyBhIGNyb3NzIGJldHdlZW4gSWk=IGFuZCA=[Qq]ii, you’ll have something like what’s shown below. Complete the square, and note what percentage of the offspring have the I allele.

 I i
 i
 i


Now look at the question, and see what the consequence is of having that I allele upon the phenotype. Remember all of this for the next time you see this question.

[c]IHRoYXQgYXJlIHllbGxvdyBpcyAxLzgu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUbyBrZWVwIHRoaW5ncyBzaW1wbGUsIGp1c3QgZm9jdXMgb24gdGhlwqA=SQ==IGFsbGVsZS4gSWYgeW91IHNldCB1cCBhIFB1bm5ldHQgc3F1YXJlIHJlcHJlc2VudGluZyBhIGNyb3NzIGJldHdlZW4gSWk=IGFuZCA=[Qq]ii, you’ll have something like what’s shown below. Complete the square, and note what percentage of the offspring have the I allele.

 I i
 i
 i

Now look at the question, and see what the consequence is of having that I allele upon the phenotype. Remember all of this for the next time you see this question.

[c]IHRoYXQgYXJlIGVpdGhlciBncmVlbiBvciB5ZWxsb3cgaXMgMS80Lg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUbyBrZWVwIHRoaW5ncyBzaW1wbGUsIGp1c3QgZm9jdXMgb24gdGhlwqA=SQ==IGFsbGVsZS4gSWYgeW91IHNldCB1cCBhIFB1bm5ldHQgc3F1YXJlIHJlcHJlc2VudGluZyBhIGNyb3NzIGJldHdlZW4gSWk=IGFuZCA=[Qq]ii, you’ll have something like what’s shown below. Complete the square, and note what percentage of the offspring have the I allele.

 I i
 i
 i

Now look at the question, and see what the consequence is of having that I allele upon the phenotype. Remember all of this for the next time you see this question.

 

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”DNA|RNA|Protein” dataset_id=”144Qs|96b7d7e5ed734″ question_number=”54″] In the lac operon, which of the following events takes place when lactose is not available in the environment?

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[f]IENvcnJlY3QhIExhY3Rvc2UgaXMgYW4gaW5kdWNpYmxlIG9wZXJvbiwgbWVhbmluZyB0aGF0IHRoZSBwcmVzZW5jZSBvZiBsYWN0b3NlIGluZHVjZXMgdHJhbnNjcmlwdGlvbiBvZiB0aGUgc3RydWN0dXJhbCBnZW5lcyBmb3IgZGlnZXN0aW5nIGxhY3Rvc2UuIFdoZW4gbGFjdG9zZSBpcyBub3QgaW4gdGhlIGVudmlyb25tZW50LCBhIHJlZ3VsYXRvciBwcm90ZWluIGJpbmRzIGF0IHRoZSBvcGVyYXRvciByZWdpb24sIGJsb2NraW5nIHRyYW5zY3JpcHRpb24gb2YgdGhlIHN0cnVjdHVyYWwgZ2VuZXMu[Qq]

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[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgdGhlIHN0cnVjdHVyZSBvZiB0aGUgbGFjIG9wZXJvbiwgc2hvd24gd2hlbiBsYWN0b3NlICg4KSBpcyBwcmVzZW50LiBOb3RlIHRoYXQgbGFjdG9zZSBpcyBiaW5kaW5nIHdpdGggYW4gYWxsb3N0ZXJpYyBzaXRlIG9uIGEgcmVndWxhdG9yeSBwcm90ZWluICgzKSwgY2hhbmdpbmcgaXRzIHNoYXBlIHNvIHRoYXQgaXQgY2FuIG5vIGxvbmdlciBiaW5kIHdpdGggdGhlIG9wZXJhdG9yIHJlZ2lvbiAoNikgYWxsb3dpbmcgdHJhbnNjcmlwdGlvbi4gVGhlIHJlZ3VsYXRvcnkgcHJvdGVpbiBpcyA=bm90IGJpbmRpbmcgd2l0aCBSTkEgcG9seW1lcmFzZSAoNCkuIEtlZXAgdGhhdCBpbiBtaW5kIHRoZSBuZXh0IHRpbWUgeW91IHNlZSB0aGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uLg==
Cg==[Qq]

[c]IEEgcmVndWxhdG9yeSBwcm90ZWluIGJpbmRzIHRvIEROQSBwb2x5bWVyYXNlLCBwcmV2ZW50aW5nIHRoZSBnZW5lIGZvciBsYWN0b3NlIHByb2R1Y3Rpb24gdG8gYmUgcmVwbGljYXRlZC4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBETkEgcG9seW1lcmFzZSBpc24mIzgyMTc7dCBpbnZvbHZlZCBpbiB0aGUgZnVuY3Rpb24gb2YgdGhpcyBvcGVyb24uIFRoZSBvcGVyb24gd29ya3MgYXMgc2hvd24gYmVsb3c6IFdoZW4gbGFjdG9zZSAoOCkgaXMgcHJlc2VudCzCoCBsYWN0b3NlIGJpbmRzIHdpdGggYW4gYWxsb3N0ZXJpYyBzaXRlIG9uIGEgcmVndWxhdG9yeSBwcm90ZWluICgzKSwgY2hhbmdpbmcgaXRzIHNoYXBlIHNvIHRoYXQgaXQgY2FuIG5vIGxvbmdlciBiaW5kIHdpdGggdGhlIG9wZXJhdG9yIHJlZ2lvbiAoNikgYWxsb3dpbmcgdHJhbnNjcmlwdGlvbi4gwqBLZWVwIHRoYXQgaW4gbWluZCB0aGUgbmV4dCB0aW1lIHlvdSBzZWUgdGhpcyBxdWVzdGlvbi4=

Cg==

[Qq]

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[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgb3Blcm9uIGlzIHdvcmtpbmcgYXQgdGhlIGxldmVsIG9mIHRyYW5zY3JpcHRpb24sIG5vdCB0cmFuc2xhdGlvbi4gUmF0aGVyLCB0aGUgb3Blcm9uIHdvcmtzIGFzIHNob3duIGJlbG93OiBXaGVuIGxhY3Rvc2UgKDgpIGlzIHByZXNlbnQsIGxhY3Rvc2UgYmluZHMgd2l0aCBhbiBhbGxvc3RlcmljIHNpdGUgb24gYSByZWd1bGF0b3J5IHByb3RlaW4gKDMpLCBjaGFuZ2luZyBpdHMgc2hhcGUgc28gdGhhdCBpdCBjYW4gbm8gbG9uZ2VyIGJpbmQgd2l0aCB0aGUgb3BlcmF0b3IgcmVnaW9uICg2KSBhbGxvd2luZyB0cmFuc2NyaXB0aW9uLiDCoEtlZXAgdGhhdCBpbiBtaW5kIHRoZSBuZXh0IHRpbWUgeW91IHNlZSB0aGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uLg==
Cg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Cells|Membranes” dataset_id=”144Qs|96ac0e69bb334″ question_number=”55″] Cristae are folds in the inner mitochondrial membrane (shown at number 2 below). Electron micrographs show that mitochondria in heart muscle have much higher density of cristae than mitochondria in skin cells. That is because

[c]IG11dGF0aW9ucyB0aGF0IG9jY3VyIGluIHRoZSBtaXRvY2hvbmRyaWFsIGdlbm9tZSBkdXJpbmcgZGV2ZWxvcG1lbnQgbGVhZCB0byBkaXN0aW5jdCBtaXRvY2hvbmRyaWFsIHBoZW5vdHlwZXMgaW4gZGlmZmVyZW50IHBhcnRzIG9mIHRoZSBib2R5Lg==[Qq]

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[c]IGNyaXN0YWUgY29udGFpbnMgcmVjZXB0b3IgcHJvdGVpbnMgdGhhdCB0cmFuc2R1Y2Ugc2lnbmFscyBmcm9tIHRoZSBza2VsZXRhbCBtdXNjbGVzLCBjYXVzaW5nIGhlYXJ0IHRpc3N1ZSB0byBpbmNyZWFzZSBBVFAgcHJvZHVjdGlvbiB3aGVuIG94eWdlbiBpcyBuZWVkZWQu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBNdXNjbGUgdGlzc3VlIGNlbGxzIGNvbnN1bWUgQVRQIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBtYWRlIGluIHRoZSBtaXRvY2hvbmRyaWEuwqBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50LiBUaGluayBhYm91dCB3aGF0IGhhcHBlbnMgaW4gdGhlIGNyaXN0YWUgKHRoZSBpbm5lciBtaXRvY2hvbmRyaWFsIG1lbWJyYW5lKS4gSXMgdGhlcmUgYW55IHdheSB0aGF0IGhhdmluZyBtb3JlIGNyaXN0YWUgY291bGQgYmUgYWRhcHRpdmU/[Qq]

[c]IGNyaXN0YWUgY29udGFpbiB0aGUgZWxlY3Ryb24gdHJhbnNwb3J0IGNoYWluIGFuZCBBVFAgc3ludGhhc2UsIHdoaWNoIHByb2R1Y2UgQV RQIHRoYXQgaXMgbmVlZGVkIGZvciB0aGUgY29udHJhY3Rpb24gb2YgaGVhcnQgbXVzY2xlIGJ1dCBub3QgZm9yIHNraW4gZnVuY3Rpb24=[Qq]

[f]IEJpbmdvISBUaGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgZXhhY3RseSB3aHkgbWl0b2Nob25kcmlhIGluIGhlYXJ0IGNlbGxzIHdvdWxkIGhhdmUgbW9yZSBjcmlzdGFlIHRoYW4gdGhvc2UgaW4gc2tpbiBjZWxscyAod2hpY2ggZG9uJiM4MjE3O3QgbmVlZCB2ZXJ5IG11Y2ggQVRQKS4=[Qq]

[c]IGNyaXN0YWUgZGVjcmVhc2UgaW5uZXIgbWVtYnJhbmUgc3VyZmFjZSBhcmVhLCB3aGljaCBwcm92aWRlcyBmb3IgaW5jcmVhc2VkIGVmZmljaWVuY3kgaW4gaGVhcnQgbXVzY2xlIHRpc3N1ZSwgZW5hYmxpbmcgaGVhcnQgY2VsbHMgdG8gcHJvZHVjZSBBVFAgYXQgYSBoaWdoZXIgcmF0ZS4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgb24gdGhlIHJpZ2h0IHRyYWNrLiBLZWVwIHRoaW5raW5nIGFib3V0IHN1cmZhY2UgYXJlYSwgYW5kIGFsc28gdGhpbmsgYWJvdXQgd2hhdCBoYXBwZW5zIGluIHRoZSBjcmlzdGFlICh0aGUgbWl0b2Nob25kcmlhbCBpbm5lciBtZW1icmFuZSkuIElmIHlvdSBjYW4gZmlndXJlIG91dCB3aHkgaGF2aW5nIG1vcmUgY3Jpc3RhZSB3b3VsZCBiZSBhZGFwdGl2ZSwgeW91JiM4MjE3O2xsIGhhdmUgeW91ciBhbnN3ZXIu[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”DNA|RNA|Protein” dataset_id=”144Qs|96a01faccab34″ question_number=”56″] The reason why neurons differ from skin cells is that the neuron cells they

[c]IGhhdmUgdHJhbnNwb3NvbnMgaW5zZXJ0ZWQgaW4gZGlmZmVyZW50IHNpdGVzIG9mIHRoZSBnZW5vbWUu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uIGlzIGFib3V0IA==Z2Vub21pYyBlcXVpdmFsZW5jZQ==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[Qq]

[c]IGhhdmUgZGlmZmVyZW50IGtpbmRzIG9mIGdlbmVzLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uIGlzIGFib3V0IA==Z2Vub21pYyBlcXVpdmFsZW5jZQ==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[Qq]

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[c]IGV4cHJlc3MgZGlmZm VyZW50IGdlbmVzLg==[Qq]

[f]IEZhYnVsb3VzISBUaGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uIGlzIGFib3V0IA==Z2Vub21pYyBlcXVpdmFsZW5jZQ==LCBhIGZ1bmRhbWVudGFsIHByaW5jaXBsZSBvZsKgIGV1a2FyeW90aWMgZGV2ZWxvcG1lbnQuIEFsbCBvZiB0aGUgY2VsbHMgaW4gYSBtdWx0aWNlbGx1bGFyIG9yZ2FuaXNtIGhhdmUgdGhlIHNhbWUgZ2VuZXMuIFRoZXkmIzgyMTc7cmUgZGlmZmVyZW50IGJlY2F1c2UgdGhleSBleHByZXNzIGRpZmZlcmVudCBnZW5lcy4=[Qq]

[c]IGhhdmUgZGlmZmVyZW50IG51bWJlcnMgb2YgY2hyb21vc29tZXMu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uIGlzIGFib3V0IA==Z2Vub21pYyBlcXVpdmFsZW5jZQ==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[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”DNA|RNA|Protein” dataset_id=”144Qs|96940baf1bf34″ question_number=”57″] In order to clone genes, bacteria are frequently used. This is because bacteria

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[c]IGNhbiByYXBpZGx5IGR1cGxpY2F0ZSBhbnkgRE5BIHNlcXVlbmNlIHRoYXQgaX Mgc3VjY2Vzc2Z1bGx5IGluc2VydGVkIGludG8gYSBiYWN0ZXJpYWwgY2VsbC4=[Qq]

[f]IE5pY2Ugam9iLiBCZWNhdXNlIHRoZSBtZWNoYW5pc21zIGZvciBjb3B5aW5nIEROQSBhcmUgd2lkZWx5IHNoYXJlZCBhbW9uZyBhbGwgbGlmZSBmb3JtcywgaXQmIzgyMTc7cyBwb3NzaWJsZSB0byBjbG9uZSBnZW5lcyBieSBpbnNlcnRpbmcgdGhlbSBpbnRvIGJhY3RlcmlhLg==[Qq]

[c]IHVzZSBtaXRvc2lzIHRvIGV4cG9uZW50aWFsbHkgaW5jcmVhc2UgdGhlaXIgcG9wdWxhdGlvbi4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBNaXRvc2lzIGlzIHNvbWV0aGluZyB0aGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgZG9uZSBleGNsdXNpdmVseSBieSBldWthcnlvdGVzIChhbmQgbm90IGJ5IGJhY3RlcmlhLCB3aGljaCBhIHByb2thcnlvdGVzKS7CoFNlZSBpZiB0aGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGEgY2hvaWNlIHRoYXQgbG9va3MgbGlrZSBpdCB3b3VsZCBiZSB1c2VmdWwgZm9yIG1ha2luZyBtYW55IGNvcGllcyBvZiBhIGdlbmUu[Qq]

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[f]IE5vLiBCYWN0ZXJpYSBkb24mIzgyMTc7dCBoYXZlIG51Y2xlaSAoYSB0cmFpdCB0aGF0IGlzIGV4Y2x1c2l2ZSB0byBldWthcnlvdGVzIGxpa2UgYW5pbWFscywgcGxhbnRzLCBhbmQgZnVuZ2kuwqBTZWUgaWYgdGhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGNob2ljZSB0aGF0IGxvb2tzIGxpa2UgaXQgd291bGQgYmUgdXNlZnVsIGZvciBtYWtpbmcgbWFueSBpZGVudGljYWwgY29waWVzIG9mIGEgZ2VuZS4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”DNA|RNA|Protein” dataset_id=”144Qs|9685ee2705b34″ question_number=”58″] The image below represents the pGLO plasmid, which is used both in research and in education.

As indicated, the plasmid contains a restriction site and three genes:

  • ampR—confers resistance to ampicillin, and antibiotic.
  • gfp—encodes the green fluorescent protein (GFP), which glows green (fluoresces) under ultraviolet (UV) light
  • araC—encodes a protein required to promote the expression of GFP when arabinose, a disaccharide, is present

The results of a bacterial transformation experiment using the pGLO plasmid are shown in the table below.

W

(untransformed bacteria)

X

(untransformed bacteria)

Y

(transformed bacteria)

Z

(transformed bacteria)

Nutrient agar Nutrient agar + ampicillin Nutrient agar, ampicillin, and arabinose Nutrient agar and ampicillin

Which plate would contain bacteria that fluoresce (glow green) under UV light?

[c]IHBsYXRlIFc=[Qq]

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[c]IHBsYXRlIFg=[Qq]

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[c]IHBsYX RlIFk=[Qq]

[f]IEZhYnVsb3VzLiBUaGVzZSBiYWN0ZXJpYSBoYXZlIHRha2VuIHVwIHRoZSBwbGFzbWlkLCB3aGljaCBwcm92aWRlcyB0aGVtIHdpdGggdGhlIGdlbmUgdG8gc3ludGhlc2l6ZSBHRlAuIE9uIHRvcCBvZiB0aGF0LCB0aGV5IGhhdmUgYmVlbiBwcm92aWRlZCB3aXRoIGFyYWJpbm9zZSwgd2hpY2ggaW5kdWNlcyB0aGUgY2VsbCB0byBzeW50aGVzaXplIEdGUC4=[Qq]

[c]IHBsYXRlIFo=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBXaGlsZSB0aGVzZSBiYWN0ZXJpYSBoYXZlIGJlZW4gdHJhbnNmb3JtZWQgKGFzIGRlbW9uc3RyYXRlZCBieSB0aGUgZmFjdCB0aGF0IHRoZXkmIzgyMTc7cmUgZ3Jvd2luZyBpbiB0aGUgcHJlc2VuY2Ugb2YgdGhlIGFudGliaW90aWMgYW1waWNpbGxpbiksIHRoZXkgaGF2ZSBub3QgYmVlbiBmZWQgYXJhYmlub3NlLCB3aGljaCBpcyByZXF1aXJlZCB0byBpbmR1Y2UgdGhlIGNlbGwgdG8gc3ludGhlc2l6ZSBHRlAuIFJlbWVtYmVyIHRoYXQgbmV4dCB0aW1lIHlvdSBzZWUgdGhpcyBxdWVzdGlvbiwgYW5kIG1ha2UgYW5vdGhlciBjaG9pY2Uu[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”DNA|RNA|Protein” dataset_id=”144Qs|96796a671c334″ question_number=”59″] The image below represents the pGLO plasmid, which is used both in research and in education.

As indicated, the plasmid contains a restriction site and three genes:

  • ampR—confers resistance to ampicillin, and antibiotic.
  • gfp—encodes the green fluorescent protein (GFP), which glows green (fluoresces) under ultraviolet (UV) light
  • araC—encodes a protein required to promote the expression of GFP when arabinose, a disaccharide, is present

The results of a bacterial transformation experiment using the pGLO plasmid are shown in the table below.

W

(untransformed bacteria)

X

(untransformed bacteria)

Y

(transformed bacteria)

Z

(transformed bacteria)

Nutrient agar Nutrient agar + ampicillin Nutrient agar, ampicillin, and arabinose Nutrient agar and ampicillin

What was the purpose of plates W or X?

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[f]IE5vLiBQbGF0ZSBXIGhhcyB1bnRyYW5zZm9ybWVkIGJhY3RlcmlhIHRoYXQgbmV2ZXIgdG9vayB1cCB0aGUgcGxhc21pZCBpbiB0aGUgZmlyc3QgcGxhY2UuIE5leHQgdGltZSB5b3Ugc2VlIHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24sIHRoaW5rIGFib3V0IHRoZSBpZGVhIA==ZXhwZXJpbWVudGFsIGNvbnRyb2xzLCBhbmQgbWFrZSBhIGRpZmZlcmVudCBjaG9pY2Uu[Qq]

[c]IFBsYXRlIFcgc2hvd2VkIHRoYXQgdGhlcmUgd2FzIGV4dHJlbWVseSBoaWdoIHRyYW5zZm9ybWF0aW9uIGVmZmljaWVuY3ku[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgZ3Jvd3RoIG9uIHBsYXRlIFcgaXMgbm90IGFib3V0IHRyYW5zZm9ybWF0aW9uIGVmZmljaWVuY3ksIGJlY2F1c2UgdGhlIGJhY3RlcmlhIG9uIHRoYXQgcGxhdGUgd2VyZSBub3QgdHJhbnNmb3JtZWQuwqDCoE5leHQgdGltZSB5b3Ugc2VlIHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24sIHRoaW5rIGFib3V0IHRoZSBpZGVhIA==ZXhwZXJpbWVudGFsIGNvbnRyb2xzLCBhbmQgbWFrZSBhIGRpZmZlcmVudCBjaG9pY2Uu[Qq]

[c]IFBsYXRlIFggc2hvd2VkIGhvdyBudXRyaWVudCBhZ2FyIGNhbiBlbmhhbmNlIHRoZSBncm93dGggb2YgdmlhYmxlIGJhY3RlcmlhLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGVyZSYjODIxNztzIG5vIGdyb3d0aCBvbiBwbGF0ZSBYLCBhbmQgdGhhdCYjODIxNztzIGR1ZSB0byB0aGUgcHJlc2VuY2Ugb2YgdGhlIGFudGliaW90aWMgYW1waWNpbGxpbi7CoE5leHQgdGltZSB5b3Ugc2VlIHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24sIHRoaW5rIGFib3V0IHRoZSBpZGVhIA==ZXhwZXJpbWVudGFsIGNvbnRyb2xzLCBhbmQgbWFrZSBhIGRpZmZlcmVudCBjaG9pY2Uu[Qq]

[c]IFBsYXRlIFggc2hvd2VkIHRoYXQgYW1waWNpbGxpbiB3YXMgZWZmZWN0aXZlIGluIGluaGliaXRpbm cgdGhlIGdyb3d0aCBvZiBiYWN0ZXJpYSB0aGF0IGhhZCBub3QgdGFrZW4gdXAgdGhlIHBsYXNtaWQu[Qq]

[f]IFRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBjb3JyZWN0ISBQbGF0ZSBYIHNob3dzIHRoYXQgdGhlcmUgd29uJiM4MjE3O3QgYmUgYW55IGdyb3d0aCBpbiB1bnRyYW5zZm9ybWVkIGJhY3RlcmlhLCB3aGljaCBoYXZlbiYjODIxNzt0IHRha2VuIHVwIHRoZSBwbGFzbWlkIHRoYXQgcHJvdmlkZXMgdGhlbSB3aXRoIGFudGliaW90aWMgcmVzaXN0YW5jZSAoaW4gYWRkaXRpb24gdG8gdGhlIGdlbmUgZm9yIEdGUCku[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”DNA|RNA|Protein” dataset_id=”144Qs|966c0722bd334″ question_number=”60″] The following image shows a sequence of nucleic acid bases coding for a sequence of amino acids. The third amino acid in the sequence (lysine) has been filled in.

In a very schematic form, the above process represents

[c]IEROQSByZXBsaWNhdGlvbg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgJiM4MjIwO1UmIzgyMjE7IG51Y2xlb3RpZGUgaW5kaWNhdGVzIHVyYWNpbCwgZm91bmQgaW4gUk5BIGJ1dCBub3QgRE5BLiBTbywgeW91IGNhbiBydWxlIG91dCBETkEgcmVwbGljYXRpb24uIFdoYXQgcHJvY2VzcyBjb252ZXJ0cyBSTkEgbnVjbGVvdGlkZXMgaW50byBhbWlubyBhY2lkcy4=[Qq]

[c]IHRyYW5zY3JpcHRpb24=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUcmFuc2NyaXB0aW9uIGNoYW5nZXMgaW5mb3JtYXRpb24gaW4gRE5BIGludG8gUk5BLiBIZXJlLCBpbmZvcm1hdGlvbiBpbiBSTkEgaXMgYmVpbmcgY2hhbmdlZCBpbnRvIHByb3RlaW4uIEl0JiM4MjE3O3Mgc2ltaWxhciB0byB3aGF0IGhhcHBlbnMgd2hlbiB5b3UgY2hhbmdlIHRoZSB3b3JkcyBpbiBvbmUgbGFuZ3VhZ2UgaW50byBlcXVpdmFsZW50IHdvcmRzIGluIGFub3RoZXIgbGFuZ3VhZ2UuIFdoYXQgcHJvY2VzcyBpcyB0aGF0Pw==[Qq]

[c]IHRyYW5zZm9ybWF0aW9u[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgdGVybSA=dHJhbnNmb3JtYXRpb24=wqByZWZlcnMgdG8gYSB3aGVuIGEgYmFjdGVyaWFsIGNlbGwgdGFrZXMgdXAgRE5BIGZyb20gYSBwbGFzbWlkIChvciBmcm9tIHRoZSBlbnZpcm9ubWVudCksIHRoZXJlYnkgYWNxdWlyaW5nIG5ldyBnZW5lcy4gSGVyZSwgaW5mb3JtYXRpb24gaW4gUk5BIGlzIGJlaW5nIGNoYW5nZWQgaW50byBwcm90ZWluLiBJdCYjODIxNztzIHNpbWlsYXIgdG8gd2hhdCBoYXBwZW5zIHdoZW4geW91IGNoYW5nZSB0aGUgd29yZHMgaW4gb25lIGxhbmd1YWdlIGludG8gZXF1aXZhbGVudCB3b3JkcyBpbiBhbm90aGVyIGxhbmd1YWdlLiBXaGF0IHByb2Nlc3MgaXMgdGhhdD8=[Qq]

[c]IHRyYW5z bGF0aW9u[Qq]

[f]IEZhYnVsb3NvISBUaGUgcHJvY2VzcyBhdCB3b3JrIGFib3ZlIGlzIHRyYW5zbGF0aW9uLCB3aGljaCB0cmFuc2xhdGVzIFJOQSBzZXF1ZW5jZXMgaW50byBhbWlubyBhY2lkIHNlcXVlbmNlcy4=[Qq]

[c]IHRyYW5zZHVjdGlvbg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUcmFuc2R1Y3Rpb24gcmVmZXJzIHRvIHNldmVyYWwgcHJvY2Vzc2VzIGluIGJpb2xvZ3ksIHN1Y2ggYXMgd2hlbiBhIHZpcnVzIGJyaW5ncyBETkEgZnJvbSBvbmUgYmFjdGVyaWFsIGNlbGwgdG8gYW5vdGhlciBkdXJpbmcgYSB2aXJhbCByZXBsaWNhdGlvbiBjeWNsZS7CoEhlcmUsIGluZm9ybWF0aW9uIGluIFJOQSBpcyBiZWluZyBjaGFuZ2VkIGludG8gcHJvdGVpbi4gSXQmIzgyMTc7cyBzaW1pbGFyIHRvIHdoYXQgaGFwcGVucyB3aGVuIHlvdSBjaGFuZ2UgdGhlIHdvcmRzIGluIG9uZSBsYW5ndWFnZSBpbnRvIGVxdWl2YWxlbnQgd29yZHMgaW4gYW5vdGhlciBsYW5ndWFnZS4gV2hhdCBwcm9jZXNzIGlzIHRoYXQ/[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”DNA|RNA|Protein” dataset_id=”144Qs|965f8362d3b34″ question_number=”61″] The following image shows a sequence of nucleic acid bases coding for a sequence of amino acids. The third amino acid in the sequence (lysine) has been filled in.

The processes that would change the nucleic acid information in the top row into the amino acid information in the bottom row occur

[c]IGF0IGEgcm lib3NvbWU=[Qq]

[f]IEV4YWN0bHkhIFRoZSBwcm9jZXNzIGlzIHRyYW5zbGF0aW9uLCBhdCBpdCBvY2N1cnMgYXQgYSByaWJvc29tZS4=[Qq]

[c]IGluIGVuenltZXMgZW1iZWRkZWQgaW4gdGhlIGNlbGwmIzgyMTc7cyBtZW1icmFuZS4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgcHJvY2VzcyB0aGF0IGNvbnZlcnRzIG51Y2xlaWMgYWNpZCBpbmZvcm1hdGlvbiBpbnRvIGFtaW5vIGFjaWQgaW5mb3JtYXRpb24gaXMgdHJhbnNsYXRpb24uIFdoZXJlIGRvZXMgdGhhdCBvY2N1cj8=[Qq]

[c]IGluIHRoZSBudWNsZXVzLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgcHJvY2VzcyB0aGF0IGNvbnZlcnRzIG51Y2xlaWMgYWNpZCBpbmZvcm1hdGlvbiBpbnRvIGFtaW5vIGFjaWQgaW5mb3JtYXRpb24gaXMgdHJhbnNsYXRpb24uIFdoZXJlIGRvZXMgdGhhdCBvY2N1cj8=[Qq]

[c]IGluIHRoZSBzbW9vdGggRW5kb3BsYXNtaWMgcmV0aWN1bHVt[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgcHJvY2VzcyB0aGF0IGNvbnZlcnRzIG51Y2xlaWMgYWNpZCBpbmZvcm1hdGlvbiBpbnRvIGFtaW5vIGFjaWQgaW5mb3JtYXRpb24gaXMgdHJhbnNsYXRpb24uIFdoZXJlIGRvZXMgdGhhdCBvY2N1cj8=[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”DNA|RNA|Protein” dataset_id=”144Qs|964f11ced9734″ question_number=”62″] The following image shows a sequence of nucleic acid bases coding for a sequence of amino acids. The third amino acid in the sequence (lysine) has been filled in.

The sequence of nucleic acid bases on the top line of the image above make up

[c]IEROQQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgcHJlc2VuY2Ugb2YgdGhlIG51Y2xlb3RpZGUgdXJhY2lsIChVKSB0ZWxscyB5b3UgdGhhdCB0aGlzIGNhbiYjODIxNzt0IGJlIEROQS4gV2hhdCBudWNsZWljIGFjaWQgY29udGFpbnMgdXJhY2lsLCBhbmQgZ2V0cyB0cmFuc2xhdGVkIGludG8gYW1pbm8gYWNpZHM/[Qq]

[c]IHRSTkE=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgcmlnaHQgYWJvdXQgdGhlIFJOQSBwYXJ0LCBidXQgeW91JiM4MjE3O3ZlIGNob3NlbiB0aGUgd3JvbmcgdHlwZSBvZiBSTkEuIFdoYXQgdHlwZSBvZiBSTkEgZ2V0cyB0cmFuc2xhdGVkIGludG8gYW1pbm8gYWNpZHM/[Qq]

[c]IHJSTkE=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgcmlnaHQgYWJvdXQgdGhlIFJOQSBwYXJ0LCBidXQgeW91JiM4MjE3O3ZlIGNob3NlbiB0aGUgd3JvbmcgdHlwZSBvZiBSTkEuIFdoYXQgdHlwZSBvZiBSTkEgZ2V0cyB0cmFuc2xhdGVkIGludG8gYW1pbm8gYWNpZHM/[Qq]

[c]IG1S TkE=[Qq]

[f]IEZhbnRhc3RpYy4gbVJOQSBpcyB0aGUgbnVjbGVpYyBhY2lkIHRoYXQgZ2V0cyB0cmFuc2xhdGVkIGludG8gcHJvdGVpbi4=[Qq]

[c]IFJOQWk=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBSTkFpIGlzIGFtYXppbmcgc3R1ZmYsIHJlc3BvbnNpYmxlIGZvciBhbGwgdHlwZSBvZiBlcGlnZW5ldGljIGVmZmVjdHMmIzgyMzA7YnV0IGl0JiM4MjE3O3Mgbm90IHRoZSBSTkEgeW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIGxvb2tpbmcgZm9yLsKgV2hhdCB0eXBlIG9mIFJOQSBnZXRzIHRyYW5zbGF0ZWQgaW50byBhbWlubyBhY2lkcz8=[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”DNA|RNA|Protein” dataset_id=”144Qs|9641ae8a7a734″ question_number=”63″] Certain restriction enzymes cut DNA in a way that leaves the fragments with “sticky ends.” These “sticky ends” are useful in genetic engineering because they allow for

[c]IHNjcmVlbmluZyBvZiBwbGFzbWlkcyB3aXRoIGFudGliaW90aWMgcmVzaXN0YW5jZSBnZW5lcy4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUYWtlIGEgbG9vayBhdCB0aGlzIHBpY3R1cmUgb2YgRE5BIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBiZWVuIGN1dCBpbiBhIHdheSB0aGF0IGxlYXZlcyBpdCB3aXRoIHN0aWNreSBlbmRzLiBOb3csIGxvb2sgYWdhaW4gYXQgdGhlIGNob2ljZXMgYW5kIHNlZSBpZiB5b3UgY2FuIGZpbmQgYSBiZXR0ZXIgYW5zd2VyLg==

Cg==

[Qq]

[c]IGlkZW50aWZpY2F0aW9uIG9mIGJhY3RlcmlhIHRoYXQgaGF2ZSBiZWVuIHN1Y2Nlc3NmdWxseSB0cmFuc2Zvcm1lZCBieSBwbGFzbWlkcy4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUYWtlIGEgbG9vayBhdCB0aGlzIHBpY3R1cmUgb2YgRE5BIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBiZWVuIGN1dCBpbiBhIHdheSB0aGF0IGxlYXZlcyBpdCB3aXRoIHN0aWNreSBlbmRzLiBOb3csIGxvb2sgYWdhaW4gYXQgdGhlIGNob2ljZXMgYW5kIHNlZSBpZiB5b3UgY2FuIGZpbmQgYSBiZXR0ZXIgYW5zd2VyLg==

Cg==

[Qq]

[c]IHJlcGxpY2F0aW9uIG9mIG1lc3NlbmdlciBSTkEgd2l0aGluIHRoZSBiYWN0ZXJpYWwgY2VsbA==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUYWtlIGEgbG9vayBhdCB0aGlzIHBpY3R1cmUgb2YgRE5BIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBiZWVuIGN1dCBpbiBhIHdheSB0aGF0IGxlYXZlcyBpdCB3aXRoIHN0aWNreSBlbmRzLiBOb3csIGxvb2sgYWdhaW4gYXQgdGhlIGNob2ljZXMgYW5kIHNlZSBpZiB5b3UgY2FuIGZpbmQgYSBiZXR0ZXIgYW5zd2VyLg==

Cg==

[Qq]

[c]IEROQSBmcm9tIGRpZmZlcmVudCBzb3VyY2 VzIHRvIGJlIGpvaW5lZCB0b2dldGhlcg==[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gRE5BIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBiZWVuIGN1dCBpbiBhIHdheSB0aGF0IGxlYXZlcyBpdCB3aXRoIHN0aWNreSBlbmRzLiBOb3csIGxvb2sgYWdhaW4gYXQgdGhlIGNob2ljZXMgYW5kIHNlZSBpZiB5b3UgY2FuIGZpbmQgYSBiZXR0ZXIgYW5zd2VyLg==

Cg==

[Qq]

 

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|9635754c0d734″ question_number=”64″] A primatologist studying lowland gorillas has developed a scheme for classifying gorilla noses as long, medium, or short in length, and either wide or narrow. She observes the results of several naturally-occurring matings, which are recorded below.

  1. Long, wide X long, wide | All long, wide
  2. Short, narrow X long, narrow | all medium, narrow
  3. Medium, wide X medium, narrow | 1/4 long wide, 1/2 medium wide, 1/4 short wide
  4. Short, wide X medium, narrow | 1/2 medium, wide; 1/2 short, wide
  5. Short, wide X short, narrow | all short, wide

Which of the following best describes the underlying genetics for inheritance of nose length.

[c]IE9uZSBsb2N1cyBnb3Zlcm5zIG5vc2UgbGVuZ3RoLiBUaGF0IGxvY3VzIGNhbiBob2xkIHRocmVlIHBvc3NpYmxlIGFsbGVsZXMuIE9uZSBjb2RlcyBmb3IgYSBzaG9ydCBub3NlLCB0aGUgc2Vjb25kIGZvciBhIG1lZGl1bSBub3NlLCBhbmQgdGhlIHRoaXJkIGZvciBhIGxvbmcgbm9zZS4=[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IFR3byBsb2NpIGdvdmVybiBub3NlIGxlbmd0aC4gSWYgdGhlcmUgYXJlIGRvbWluYW50IGFsbGVsZXMgYXQgYm90aCBsb2NpLCB0aGUgbm9zZSB3aWxsIGJlIExvbmcuIElmIG9uZSBsb2N1cyBoYXMgYSBkb21pbmFudCBhbGxlbGUsIHRoZSBub3NlIHdpbGwgYmUgc2hvcnQuIElmIHRoZXJlIGFyZSBubyBkb21pbmFudCBhbGxlbGVzIGF0IGVpdGhlciBsb2N1cywgdGhlIG5vc2Ugd2lsbCBiZSBtZWRpdW0u[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBJZiB5b3UmIzgyMTc7cmUganVzdCBjb25zaWRlcmluZyBub3NlIGxlbmd0aCwgeW91IGNhbiBleHBsYWluIGl0IHRocm91Z2ggdHdvIGFsbGVsZXMgYXQgb25lIGxvY3VzLsKgSG93ZXZlciwgeW91IG5lZWQgdG8gYWNjb3VudCBmb3IgdGhlIGZhY3QgdGhhdCBzb21lIG9mIHRoZSBvZmZzcHJpbmcgaGF2ZSBhbiBpbnRlcm1lZGlhdGUgcGhlbm90eXBlLiBXaGF0IGtpbmQgb2YgaW5oZXJpdGFuY2UgYWxsb3dzIGZvciB0aGF0Pw==[Qq]

[c]IE9uZSBsb2N1cyBnb3Zlcm5zIG5vc2UgbGVuZ3RoLiBUaGUgbG9jdXMgaGFzIHR3byBhbGxlbGVzLiBBIGdvcmlsbGEgY2FuIGJlIG hvbW96eWdvdXMgbG9uZyBvciBob21venlnb3VzIHNob3J0LiBIZXRlcm96eWdvdGVzIGhhdmUgbWVkaXVtIG5vc2UgbGVuZ3RoLg==[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gVGhpcyBtb2RlbCB3b3JrcyBwZXJmZWN0bHkgZm9yIGRlc2NyaWJpbmcgaW5oZXJpdGFuY2Ugb2Ygbm9zZSBsZW5ndGgu[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”DNA|RNA|Protein” dataset_id=”144Qs|9628f18c23f34″ question_number=”65″] A research team is studying the genetics of beak length in house sparrows, where beak length has two phenotypes, long and short. Pedigree studies have shown that this phenotype is under the control of a single autosomal gene with two alleles. The DNA for each allele is isolated and sequenced, and it’s determined that a single nucleotide difference accounts for the short mutation.

When the DNA of both alleles is subjected to restriction fragment analysis, the pattern below is produced.

Based on the diagram, the most reasonable explanation for the different RFLPs associated with the long and short beaked alleles is that a mutation in the long allele DNA

[c]IGVsaW1pbmF0ZWQgYSByZXN0cmljdGlvbiBzaXRlLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUga2V5IHRoaW5nIHRvIG5vdGljZSBpcyB0aGF0IHRoZSBsb25nIGFsbGVsZSBETkEgaGFzIGZvdXIgZnJhZ21lbnRzLCBhbmQgdGhlIHNob3J0IGFsbGVsZSBETkEgaGFzIGZpdmUuIEEgbXV0YXRpb24gdGhhdCBlbGltaW5hdGVkIGEgcmVzdHJpY3Rpb24gc2l0ZSB3b3VsZCBwcm9kdWNlIA==ZmV3ZXI=IGZyYWdtZW50cywgbm90IG1vcmUuIFJlbWVtYmVyIHRoYXQsIGFuZCBtYWtlIGFub3RoZXIgY2hvaWNlIG5leHQgdGltZSB5b3Ugc2VlIHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24u[Qq]

[c]IGFjdGl2YXRlZCBhbiBpbmFjdGl2ZSBnZW5lLCBjcmVhdGluZyBuZXcgRE5BIGZyYWdtZW50cy4=[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IGNyZWF0ZWQgYSBuZXcgcm VzdHJpY3Rpb24gc2l0ZS4=[Qq]

[f]IENvcnJlY3QuIFJGTFAgYW5hbHlzaXMgcHJvZHVjZXMgZm91ciBmcmFnbWVudHMgaW4gdGhlIEROQSBmb3IgdGhlIGxvbmcgYWxsZWxlLCBhbmQgZml2ZSBpbiB0aGUgRE5BIGZvciB0aGUgc2hvcnQgYWxsZWxlLiBJZiBhIG11dGF0aW9uIGNyZWF0ZWQgYSBuZXcgcmVzdHJpY3Rpb24gc2l0ZSBpbiB0aGUgc2Vjb25kIGJpZ2dlc3QgRE5BIGZyYWdtZW50IGluIHRoZSBsb25nIEROQSwgdGhlbiBpdCB3b3VsZCBwcm9kdWNlIHR3byBhZGRpdGlvbmFsIGZyYWdtZW50cywgZWFjaCBvZiBpbnRlcm1lZGlhdGUgbGVuZ3RoLiBUaGF0IHdvdWxkIGNyZWF0ZSBwcmVjaXNlbHkgdGhlIHBhdHRlbiB0aGF0JiM4MjE3O3Mgc2VlbiBpbiB0aGUgc2hvcnQgYWxsZWxlLg==[Qq]

[c]IGRpc2FibGVkIGFuIGFjdGl2ZSBnZW5lLg==[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|961a6441d2f34″ question_number=”66″] In Drosophila, allele W codes for normal wings, while allele w codes for vestigial wings. Allele G codes for normal body color, while allele g codes for ebony. A heterozygous normal winged, ebony male is crossed with a vestigial winged, heterozygous normal body color female.

What is the genotype of the male fly?

[c]IFd3R2c=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgbWFsZSBpcyBkZXNjcmliZWQgYXMgaGV0ZXJvenlnb3VzIG5vcm1hbCB3aW5nZWQsIGVib255LiBXd0dnIHdvdWxkIGJlIGRlc2NyaWJlZCBhcyBoZXRlcm96eWdvdXMgbm9ybWFsIHdpbmdlZCwgaGV0ZXJvenlnb3VzIG5vcm1hbCBib2R5IGNvbG9yLiBXaGF0IGdlbm90eXBlIHdvdWxkIGEgZmx5IGhhdmUgdG8gaGF2ZSB0byBiZSBlYm9ueT8=[Qq]

[c]IFdXR0c=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgbWFsZSBpcyBkZXNjcmliZWQgYXMgaGV0ZXJvenlnb3VzIG5vcm1hbCB3aW5nZWQsIGVib255LldXR0cgd291bGQgYmUgZGVzY3JpYmVkIGFzIGhvbW96eWdvdXMgbm9ybWFsIHdpbmdlZCwgaG9tb3p5Z291cyBub3JtYWwgYm9keSBjb2xvci4gV2hhdCBnZW5vdHlwZSB3b3VsZCBhIGZseSBoYXZlIHRvIGJlIGhldGVyb3p5Z291cyBmb3Igbm9ybWFsIHdpbmdzLCBhbmQgZWJvbnkgYm9kaWVkLg==[Qq]

[c]IHd3Z2c=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgbWFsZSBpcyBkZXNjcmliZWQgYXMgaGV0ZXJvenlnb3VzIG5vcm1hbCB3aW5nZWQsIGVib255LlRoZSBnZW5vdHlwZSB3d2dnIHdvdWxkIGJlIGRlc2NyaWJlZCBhcyBob21venlnb3VzIHZlc3RpZ2lhbCB3aW5nZWQsIGhvbW96eWdvdXMgZWJvbnkgYm9keSBjb2xvciAoc28geW91IGdvdCB0aGUgc2Vjb25kIHBhcnQgcmlnaHQpIFdoYXQgZ2Vub3R5cGUgd291bGQgYSBmbHkgaGF2ZSB0byBiZSBoZXRlcm96eWdvdXMgZm9yIG5vcm1hbCB3aW5ncz8=[Qq]

[c]IHd3R0c=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgbWFsZSBpcyBkZXNjcmliZWQgYXMgaGV0ZXJvenlnb3VzIG5vcm1hbCB3aW5nZWQsIGVib255LlRoZSBnZW5vdHlwZSB3d0dHIHdvdWxkIGJlIGRlc2NyaWJlZCBhcyBob21venlnb3VzIHZlc3RpZ2lhbCB3aW5nZWQsIGhvbW96eWdvdXMgbm9ybWFsIGJvZHkgY29sb3IuIFdoYXQgZ2Vub3R5cGUgd291bGQgYSBmbHkgaGF2ZSB0byBoYXZlIHRvIGJlIGhldGVyb3p5Z291cyBmb3Igbm9ybWFsIHdpbmdzLCBhbmQgZWJvbnkgYm9kaWVkIChhbmQgcmVtZW1iZXIgdGhhdCBlYm9ueSBib2RpZWQgaXMgYSByZWNlc3NpdmUgdHJhaXQpLg==[Qq]

[c]IFd3 Z2c=[Qq]

[f]IEZhYnVsb3VzLiBBIGdlbm90eXBlIG9mIFd3Z2cgbWVhbnMgdGhhdCB0aGUgZmx5IGlzIGhldGVyb3p5Z291cyBmb3Igbm9ybWFsIHdpbmdzLCBhbmQgZWJvbnkgY29sb3JlZC4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|960d263e32334″ question_number=”67″] In Drosophila, allele W codes for normal wings, while allele w codes for vestigial wings. Allele G codes for normal body color, while allele g codes for ebony coloring. A heterozygous normal winged, ebony male is crossed with a vestigial winged, heterozygous normal body color female. What ratio of of phenotypes is expected in the offspring?

[c]IDEgbm9ybWFsIHdpbmdzLCBub3JtYWwgYm9keSA6IDHCoCBub3JtYWwgd2luZ3MsIGVib255IGJvZHkgOiAx IHZlc3RpZ2lhbCB3aW5ncywgbm9ybWFsIGJvZHkgOiAxwqAgdmVzdGlnYWwgd2luZ3MsIGVib255IGJvZHk=[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gQSBjcm9zcyBiZXR3ZWVuIFd3Z2cgYW5kIHd3R2cgd2lsbCBnaXZlIHlvdSBhIDE6MToxOjEgcmF0aW8gb2YgcGhlbm90eXBlcyBpbiB0aGUgb2Zmc3ByaW5nLg==[Qq]

[c]IDMgbm9ybWFsIHdpbmdzLCBub3JtYWwgYm9keSA6IDMgbm9ybWFsIHdpbmdzLCBlYm9ueSBib2R5IDogMyB2ZXN0aWdpYWwgd2luZ3MsIG5vcm1hbCBib2R5IDogMyB2ZXN0aWdhbCB3aW5ncywgZWJvbnkgYm9keQ==[Qq]

[f]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

Cg==Cg==Cg==Cg==
[Qq] wG wg
Wg  WgGg
wg

[c]IDMgbm9ybWFsIHdpbmdzLCBub3JtYWwgYm9keSA6IDEgbm9ybWFsIHdpbmdzLCBlYm9ueSBib2R5IDogMyB2ZXN0aWdpYWwgd2luZ3MsIG5vcm1hbCBib2R5IDogMSB2ZXN0aWdpYWwgd2luZ3MsIGVib255IGJvZHk=[Qq]

[f]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

Cg==Cg==Cg==Cg==
[Qq] wG wg
Wg  WgGg
wg

[c]IDkgbm9ybWFsIHdpbmdzLCBub3JtYWwgYm9keSA6IDMgbm9ybWFsIHdpbmdzLCBlYm9ueSBib2R5IDogMyB2ZXN0aWdpYWwgd2luZ3MsIG5vcm1hbCBib2R5IDogMSB2ZXN0aWdhbCB3aW5ncywgZWJvbnkgYm9keQ==[Qq]

[f]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

Cg==Cg==Cg==Cg==
[Qq] wG wg
Wg  WgGg
wg

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”DNA|RNA|Protein” dataset_id=”144Qs|960057fccc334″ question_number=”68″] Imagine that an error has during DNA replication in a cell. The error substitutes a G in place of a T in one of the cell’s genes. Which of the following is the most likely effect that this will have on the cell?

[c]IEVhY2ggb2YgdGhlIGNlbGwmIzgyMTc7cyBwcm90ZWlucyB3aWxsIGNvbnRhaW4gYW4gaW5jb3JyZWN0IGFtaW5vIGFjaWQu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgbWFpbiBwcm9ibGVtIHdpdGggdGhpcyBjaG9pY2UgaXMgdGhhdCB0aGUgbXV0YXRpb24gd2lsbCBhZmZlY3Qgb25seSBhIHNpbmdsZSBwcm90ZWluIChub3QgZWFjaCBvZiB0aGUgY2VsbCYjODIxNztzIHByb3RlaW5zKS4gV2hlbiB5b3UgbmV4dCBzZWUgdGhpcyBxdWVzdGlvbiwgdGhpbmsgb2YgaG93IGluZm9ybWF0aW9uIGluIEROQSBnZXRzIHRyYW5zbGF0ZWQgaW50byBwcm90ZWluLCBhbmQgY29uc2lkZXIgdGhlIGxpa2VseSBlZmZlY3Qgb2YgYSBzaW5nbGUgYmFzZSBwYWlyIHN1YnN0aXR1dGlvbi4=[Qq]

[c]IFRoZSBhbWlubyBhY2lkIHNlcXVlbmNlIG9mIG9uZSBvZiB0aGUgY2VsbCYjODIxNztzIHByb3RlaW5zIHdpbGwgYmUgY29tcGxldGVseSBhbHRlcmVkLg==[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IE9uZSBhbWlubyBhY2lkIHdpbGwgYmUgbWlzc2luZyBmcm9tIG9uZSBvZiB0aGUgY2VsbCYjODIxNztzIHByb3RlaW5zLA==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBbGwgdGhhdCB0aGlzIG11dGF0aW9uIGRvZXMgaXMgc3Vic3RpdHV0ZSBvbmUgbnVjbGVvdGlkZSBmb3IgYW5vdGhlci4gVGhhdCBtaWdodCByZXN1bHQgaW4gYW4gaW5jb3JyZWN0IGFtaW5vIGFjaWQsIGJ1dCBpdCB3b3VsZG4mIzgyMTc7dCByZXN1bHQgaW4gYSBtaXNzaW5nIGFtaW5vIGFjaWQu[Qq]

[c]IE9uZSBvZiB0aGUgY2VsbCYjODIxNztzIHByb3RlaW5zIG1p Z2h0IGNvbnRhaW4gYW4gaW5jb3JyZWN0IGFtaW5vIGFjaWQu[Qq]

[f]IENvcnJlY3QuIEEgbGlrZWx5IGVmZmVjdCBvZiBhIHNpbmdsZSBudWNsZW90aWRlIGNoYW5nZSBpcyB0aGF0IG9uZSBvZiB0aGUgY2VsbCYjODIxNztzIHByb3RlaW4gbWlnaHQgY29udGFpbiBhbiBpbmNvcnJlY3QgYW1pbm8gYWNpZC4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|95f07b6bcaf34″ question_number=”69″] A team of biologists is studying gene expression in rat liver tissue. They find that two different proteins with different structures were translated from two different mRNAs. When they traced the source of the mRNA, however, they found the both mRNAs were transcribed from the same gene in the cell’s nucleus. Which of the following explanation best accounts for what the team has uncovered?

[c]IFRoZSBnZW5lIG1pZ2h0IGhhdmUgYmVlbiBhbHRlcmVkIGJ5IGEgbXV0YXRpb24u[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IFRoZSBkaWZmZXJlbnQgZnVuY3Rpb25zIG9mIGVhY2ggcHJvdGVpbiByZXF1aXJlIHRoZW0gdG8gaGF2ZSBkaWZmZXJlbnQgdW5kZXJseWluZyBSTkFzIHdoaWNoIGNvZGUgZm9yIHRoZW0u[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBSZW1lbWJlciB0aGUgY2VudHJhbCBkb2dtYSBvZiBtb2xlY3VsYXIgYmlvbG9neTogRE5BIG1ha2VzIFJOQSBtYWtlcyBwcm90ZWluLiBUaGlzIGNob2ljZSBpcyBwcm9wb3NpbmcgYSBwcm9jZXNzIHRoYXQgdmlvbGF0ZXMgdGhpcyBrZXkgaWRlYS7CoFRoZSBuZXh0IHRpbWUgeW91IHNlZSB0aGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uLCB0aGluayBhYm91dCBnZW5lIGV4cHJlc3Npb24gaW4gZXVrYXJ5b3RlcywgYW5kIHNlZSBpZiB5b3UgY2FuIHJlbWVtYmVyIGEgbWVjaGFuaXNtIGJ5IHdoaWNoIHR3byBSTkFzIGNvdWxkIHJlc3VsdCBmcm9tIG9uZSBnZW5lLg==[Qq]

[c]IERpZmZlcmVudCBzeXN0ZW1zIG9mIGhpc3RvbmUgYWNldHlsYXRpb24gY291bGQgcmVzdWx0IGluIHR3byBkaWZmZXJlbnQgbVJOQXMu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBEaWZmZXJlbnQgcGF0dGVybnMgb2YgaGlzdG9uZSBhY2V0eWxhdGlvbiBjYW4gcmVzdWx0IGluIGRpZmZlcmVudCBwYXR0ZXJucyBvZiBnZW5lIGV4cHJlc3Npb24sIGJ1dCBpdCB3b3VsZG4mIzgyMTc7dCBwcm9kdWNlIHR3byBtUk5BcyBmcm9tIG9uZSBnZW5lLsKgVGhlIG5leHQgdGltZSB5b3Ugc2VlIHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24sIHRoaW5rIGFib3V0IGdlbmUgZXhwcmVzc2lvbiBpbiBldWthcnlvdGVzLCBhbmQgc2VlIGlmIHlvdSBjYW4gcmVtZW1iZXIgYSBtZWNoYW5pc20gYnkgd2hpY2ggdHdvIFJOQXMgY291bGQgcmVzdWx0IGZyb20gb25lIGdlbmUu[Qq]

[c]IER1cmluZyBwcmUtbVJOQSBwcm9jZXNzaW5nLCBleG9ucyBjb3VsZCBiZSBzcGxpY2Vk IHRvZ2V0aGVyIGluIHZhcmlvdXMgd2F5cyB0byBtYWtlIGRpZmZlcmVudCBtUk5Bcy4=[Qq]

[f]IFdheSB0byBnbyEgSWYgb25lIGdlbmUgaXMgcmVzdWx0aW5nIGluIHR3byBtUk5BcywgdGhlbiB3aGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgaGFwcGVuaW5nIGlzIGFsdGVybmF0aXZlIHNwbGljaW5nIG9mIFJOQS4gVGhlc2UgZGlmZmVyZW50IFJOQXMgd291bGQgdGhlbiBnbyBvbiB0byBiZSB0cmFuc2xhdGVkIGFzIGRpc3RpbmN0IHByb3RlaW5zLg==[Qq]

[c]IE9uZSBzZXQgb2Ygcmlib3NvbWVzIHJlYWQgdGhlIG1STkEgaW4gdGhlIDUmIzgyNDI7IHRvIDMmIzgyNDI7IGRpcmVjdGlvbi4gQW5vdGhlciBzZXQgcmVhZHMgdGhlbSBpbiB0aGUgMyYjODI0MjsgdG8gNSYjODI0MjsgZGlyZWN0aW9uLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBbGwgcmlib3NvbWVzICh3aGV0aGVyIGluIGFuwqA=RS4gY29saQ==IGJhY3Rlcml1bSBvciBhbiBvcmNoaWQsIHJlYWQgbVJOQSBpbiB0aGUgNSYjODI0MjsgdG8gMyYjODI0MjsgZGlyZWN0aW9uLsKgVGhlIG5leHQgdGltZSB5b3Ugc2VlIHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24sIHRoaW5rIGFib3V0IGdlbmUgZXhwcmVzc2lvbiBpbiBldWthcnlvdGVzLCBhbmQgc2VlIGlmIHlvdSBjYW4gcmVtZW1iZXIgYSBtZWNoYW5pc20gYnkgd2hpY2ggdHdvIFJOQXMgY291bGQgcmVzdWx0IGZyb20gb25lIGdlbmUu[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|95e362a8e8734″ question_number=”70″] In shorthorn cattle, coat color can be solid red, solid white, or red-roan (a mixture of white and pigmented hairs). When a true breeding solid red male is crossed with a white female, the offspring are roan. This demonstrates that

[c]IGNvYXQgY29sb3IgaXMgY29udHJvbGxlZCBieSBhdCBsZWFzdCB0aHJlZSBhbGxlbGVzLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZb3UgbWlnaHQgYmUgdGhpbmtpbmcgb2Ygc3lzdGVtcyBsaWtlIGluaGVyaXRhbmNlIG9mIGJsb29kIHR5cGUsIHdoZXJlIHRoZSBBIGFsbGVsZSBhbmQgdGhlIEIgYWxsZWxlIHByb2R1Y2UgYmxvb2QgdHlwZSBBQi4gQnV0IG5vdGUgdGhhdCB5b3UgY2FuIGFjaGlldmUgdGhlIGludGVybWVkaWF0ZSBwaGVub3R5cGUgd2l0aCBqdXN0IHR3byBhbGxlbGVzIChhcyBvcHBvc2VkIHRvIHRocmVlKS4gS2VlcCB0aGF0IGluIG1pbmQgd2hlbiB5b3UgbmV4dCBzZWUgdGhpcyBxdWVzdGlvbi4=[Qq]

[c]IHJlZCBhbmQgd2hpdGUgc2hvdyBp bmNvbXBsZXRlIGRvbWluYW5jZS4=[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gSWYgcg==IGlzIHRoZSBhbGxlbGUgZm9yIFJlZCBhbmQgdw==IGlzIHRoZSBhbGxlbGUgZm9yIHdoaXRlLCB0aGVuIHRoZSBjcm9zcyBhYm92ZSBjb3VsZCBiZSByZXByZXNlbnRlZCBhcyA=[Qq]rr x ww, with all the offspring having the genotype rw, and the roan phenotype.

[c]IHRoZSByZWQgYWxsZWxlIGlzIGRvbWluYW50IG92ZXIgdGhlIHdoaXRlIGFsbGVsZS4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBJZiA=Ug==IHJlcHJlc2VudGVkIHRoZSBkb21pbmFudCBhbGxlbGUgZm9yIHJlZCwgYW5kIA==cg==IHJlcHJlc2VudGVkIHRoZSByZWNlc3NpdmUgYWxsZWxlIGZvciB3aGl0ZSwgdGhlbiBhIGNyb3NzIGJldHdlZW4gdHJ1ZSBicmVlZGluZyByZWQgYW5kIHdoaXRlIHdvdWxkIGJlIFJSIHggcnIuIEFsbCB0aGUgb2Zmc3ByaW5nIHdvdWxkIGJlIA==[Qq]Rr, and we’d expect them to be red, not roan. What kind of inheritance system would result in pure bred red crossed with purebred white resulting in an intermediate phenotype?

[c]IENyb3NzaW5nIG92ZXIgYW5kIHJlY29tYmluYXRpb24gb2NjdXJyaW5nIGR1cmluZyBtZWlvc2lzLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBDcm9zc2luZyBvdmVyIGFuZCByZWNvbWJpbmF0aW9uIGFsbW9zdCBjZXJ0YWlubHkgZGlkIG9jY3VyIGR1cmluZyBtZWlvc2lzLCBidXQgaXQgd291bGRuJiM4MjE3O3QgYWNoaWV2ZSB0aGUgcmVzdWx0IGRlc2NyaWJlZCBhYm92ZS7CoFdoYXQga2luZCBvZiBpbmhlcml0YW5jZSBzeXN0ZW0gd291bGQgcmVzdWx0IGluIHB1cmUgYnJlZCByZWQgY3Jvc3NlZCB3aXRoIHB1cmVicmVkIHdoaXRlIHJlc3VsdGluZyBpbiBhbiBpbnRlcm1lZGlhdGUgcGhlbm90eXBlPw==[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|95d5da23cb334″ question_number=”71″] Blood type inheritance involves three alleles. While there are several notation systems for representing these alleles, a common one has alleles IA and IB as codominant to one another, with each of these dominant over i. If a child has type O blood (genotype ii), which of the following blood types is impossible in either parents?

[c]IFR5cGUgTw==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgYmVzdCB3YXkgdG8gdGhpbmsgYWJvdXQgdGhpcyBpcyB0byBkcmF3IGEgUHVubmV0dCBzcXVhcmUsIGFuZCBwdXQgdGhlIGdlbm90eXBlIG9mIHRoZSB0eXBlIE8gY2hpbGQgaW4gdGhlIGxvd2VyIHJpZ2h0IGJveCwgYXMgc2hvd24gYmVsb3cu

Cg==Cg==Cg==Cg==
[Qq]
 ii

If the child is ii, then each of their parents must have given them an i allele, as shown in the slightly more complete Punnett square shown below.

 ___ i
 ___
 i  ii

Each parent is __i. It’s completely possible that the child could have a parent that’s type O (genotype ii). But what genotype is impossible for either of the parents to have?

[c]IFR5cGUgQg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgYmVzdCB3YXkgdG8gdGhpbmsgYWJvdXQgdGhpcyBpcyB0byBkcmF3IGEgUHVubmV0dCBzcXVhcmUsIGFuZCBwdXQgdGhlIGdlbm90eXBlIG9mIHRoZSB0eXBlIE8gY2hpbGQgaW4gdGhlIGxvd2VyIHJpZ2h0IGJveCwgYXMgc2hvd24gYmVsb3cu

Cg==Cg==Cg==Cg==
[Qq]
 ii

If the child is ii, then each of their parents must have given them an i allele, as shown in the slightly more complete Punnett square shown below.

 ___ i
 ___
 i  ii

Each parent is __i. It’s completely possible that the child could have a parent that’s type B (genotype IBi). But what genotype is impossible for either of the parents to have?

[c]IFR5cGUgQQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgYmVzdCB3YXkgdG8gdGhpbmsgYWJvdXQgdGhpcyBpcyB0byBkcmF3IGEgUHVubmV0dCBzcXVhcmUsIGFuZCBwdXQgdGhlIGdlbm90eXBlIG9mIHRoZSB0eXBlIE8gY2hpbGQgaW4gdGhlIGxvd2VyIHJpZ2h0IGJveCwgYXMgc2hvd24gYmVsb3cu

Cg==Cg==Cg==Cg==
[Qq]
 ii

If the child is ii, then each of their parents must have given them an i allele, as shown in the slightly more complete Punnett square shown below.

 ___ i
 ___
 i  ii

Each parent is __i. It’s completely possible that the child could have a parent that’s type A (genotype IAi). But what genotype is impossible for either of the parents to have?

[c]IFR5cG UgQUI=[Qq]

[f]IFdheSB0byBnby4gR3JlZ29yIE1lbmRlbCB3b3VsZCBiZSBwcm91ZC4gQSBjaGlsZCB3aXRoIHR5cGUgTyBibG9vZCBuZWVkcyBlYWNoIG9mIHRoZWlyIHBhcmVudHMgdG8gZ2l2ZSB0aGVtIGE=IGk=IGFsbGVsZS4gR2l2ZW4gdGhhdCwgdHlwZSBBQiBpcyBpbXBvc3NpYmxlIChiZWNhdXNlIGEgdHlwZSBBQiBwYXJlbnQgY291bGQgZ2l2ZSB0aGVpciBjaGlsZCBlaXRoZXLCoA==SQ==QcKgwqA=[Qq]or IBbut not a i.

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|95c8519eadf34″ question_number=”72″] Blood type inheritance involves three alleles. While there are several notation systems for representing these alleles, a common one has alleles IA and IB as codominant to one another, with each of these dominant over i. If a man with type B blood has children with a woman with type O blood, which of the following blood types would be impossible in their children.

[c]IFR5cGUgTw==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgbWFuIHdpdGggdHlwZSBCIGJsb29kIGNvdWxkIGhhdmUgb25lIG9mIHR3byBnZW5vdHlwZXM6wqA=SQ==Qg==aSA=KGlmIGhlIHdlcmUgaGV0ZXJvenlnb3VzKSw=[Qq] or IBIB, (if he were homozygous type B). The woman is type O, so her genotype has to be ii. If you can set up two Punnett squares on your own, then do so, and you’ll see the two genotypes that are impossible. If not, then continue reading below.

Here’s the Punnett square that shows the father as a heterozygote:

 IB  i
 i
 i  ii

Here’s the Punnett square that shows the father as a homozygote:

 IB  IB
 i
 i  ii

Complete both Punnett squares by bringing the alleles down and over. As you can see by the first Punnett square, a type O child is possible. But which blood type is impossible? 

[c]IFR5cGUgQg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgbWFuIHdpdGggdHlwZSBCIGJsb29kIGNvdWxkIGhhdmUgb25lIG9mIHR3byBnZW5vdHlwZXM6wqA=SQ==Qg==aSA=KGlmIGhlIHdlcmUgaGV0ZXJvenlnb3VzKSw=[Qq] or IBIB, (if he were homozygous type B). The woman is type O, so here genotype has to be ii. If you can set up two Punnett squares on your own, then do so, and you’ll see the two genotypes that are impossible. If not, then continue reading below.

Here’s the Punnett square that shows the father as a heterozygote:

 IB  i
 i
 i  ii

Here’s the Punnett square that shows the father as a homozygote:

 IB  IB
 i
 i  ii

Complete both Punnett squares by bringing the alleles down and over. As you can see, in either Punnett square, a type B child is possible. But which blood type is impossible? 

[c]IFR5cG UgQUI=[Qq]

[f]IENvcnJlY3QhwqBUaGUgbWFuIHdpdGggdHlwZSBCIGJsb29kIGNvdWxkIGhhdmUgb25lIG9mIHR3byBnZW5vdHlwZXM6wqA=SQ==Qg==aSA=KGlmIGhlIHdlcmUgaGV0ZXJvenlnb3VzKSw=[Qq] or IBIB, (if he were homozygous type B). The woman is type O, so her genotype has to be ii. The offspring will all be type B or type O. Type AB is impossible (as is type A).

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|95bb38dbcb734″ question_number=”73″] Down syndrome and and Klinefelter’s syndrome have in which of the following in common?

[c]IEJvdGggaW52b2x2ZSB0aGUgWCBvciBZIGNocm9tb3NvbWVz[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IEJvdGggYXJlIHRoZSByZXN1bHQgb2YgYSBwb2ludCBtdXRhdGlvbnMu[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IEJvdGggYXJlIGFzc29jaWF0ZWQgd2l0aCBvZi BjaGFuZ2VzIGluIGNocm9tb3NvbWUgbnVtYmVy[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gQm90aCBEb3duIHN5bmRyb21lIGFuZCBLbGluZWZlbHRlciYjODIxNztzIHN5bmRyb21lIGludm9sdmUgY2hhbmdlcyBpbiBjaHJvbW9zb21lIG51bWJlci7CoERvd24gU3luZHJvbWUgb2NjdXJzIHdoZW4gYSBwZXJzb24gcmVjZWl2ZXMgdGhyZWUgY29waWVzIG9mIGNocm9tb3NvbWUgMjEsIHJhdGhlciB0aGFuIHR3by4gS2xpbmVmZWx0ZXImIzgyMTc7cyBzeW5kcm9tZSBvY2N1cnMgd2hlbiBhIGNocm9tb3NvbWFsbHkgbWFsZSBwZXJzb24gaGFzIGFuIGV4dHJhIFggY2hyb21vc29tZS4=[Qq]

[c]IEJvdGggY29uZGl0aW9ucyBhcmUgY2F1c2VkIGJ5IGF1dG9zb21hbCBkb21pbmFudCBhbGxlbGVz[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|95ab818b88734″ question_number=”74″] Conditions like hemophilia, Red-green colorblindness, and Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy are inherited a sex-linked recessive disorders. The term “sex-linked” means:

[c]IFRoZSBhbGxlbGUgaXMgY2FycmllZCBvbiBhbiBhdXRvc29tZQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgcmVhc29uIHRoZXNlIGNvbmRpdGlvbnMgYXJlICYjODIyMDtzZXggbGlua2VkJiM4MjIxOyBpcyBiZWNhdXNlIHRoZXkmIzgyMTc7cmUgbm90IGNhcnJpZWQgb24gYXV0b3NvbWVzLiBJZiB0aGV5IHdlcmUgY2FycmllZCBvbiBhdXRvc29tZXMsIHRoZWlyIGluaGVyaXRhbmNlIHdvdWxkIG5vdCBiZSBsaW5rZWQgdG8gc2V4LiBXaGF0IGNocm9tb3NvbWVzIHdvdWxkIGEgY29uZGl0aW9uIGhhdmUgdG8gYmUgbGlua2VkIHRvIGluIG9yZGVyIHRvIGJlIGxpbmtlZCB0byBzZXg/[Qq]

[c]IFRoZSBhbGxlbGUgaXMgY2FycmllZCBvbiB0aGUgWSBjaHJvbW9zb21l[Qq]

[f]IE5vLCBidXQgeW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIHRoaW5raW5nIGFib3V0IHRoaXMgdGhlIHJpZ2h0IHdheS4gSGVtb3BoaWxpYSwgcmVkLWdyZWVuIGNvbG9yYmxpbmRuZXNzLCBhbmQgRHVjaGVubmUmIzgyMTc7cyBtdXNjdWxhciBkeXN0cm9waHkgc2hvdyB1cCBtb3JlIG9mdGVuIGluIG1hbGVzIHRoYW4gZmVtYWxlcywgYnV0IG5vdCBiZWNhdXNlIHRoZXkgYXJlIG9uIHRoZSBZIGNocm9tb3NvbWUuwqBXaGF0IGNocm9tb3NvbWUgd291bGQgYSBjb25kaXRpb24gaGF2ZSB0byBiZSBsaW5rZWQgdG8gaW4gb3JkZXIgdG8gYmUgbGlua2VkIHRvIHNleD8=[Qq]

[c]IFRoZSBhbGxlbGUgaXMgY2Fycmll ZCBvbiB0aGUgWH5jaHJvbW9zb21l[Qq]

[f]IEZhYnVsb3VzISBUaGUgYWxsZWxlcyBmb3IgaGVtb3BoaWxpYSwgcmVkLWdyZWVuIGNvbG9yYmxpbmRuZXNzLCBhbmQgRHVjaGVubmUmIzgyMTc7cyBtdXNjdWxhciBkeXN0cm9waHkgYXJlIGFsbCBmb3VuZCBvbiB0aGUgWCBjaHJvbW9zb21lLCBtYWtpbmcgdGhlbSBzZXggbGlua2VkLg==[Qq]

[c]IFRoZSBhbGxlbGUgaXMgY2FycmllZCBpbiB0aGUgbWl0b2Nob25kcmlhbCBETkE=[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|959e68c8a5f34″ question_number=”75″] A man and a woman, both with normal vision, have a son who is red-green colorblind. Which of the following is the most likely explanation.

[c]IEJvdGggbWF0ZXJuYWwgZ3JhbmRwYXJlbnRzIGFyZSBjb2xvcmJsaW5k[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUga2V5IHRoaW5nIHRvIHJlbWVtYmVyIGhlcmUgaXMgdGhhdCByZWQtZ3JlZW4gY29sb3JibGluZG5lc3MgaXMgYSByZWNlc3NpdmUsIHNleC1saW5rZWQgY29uZGl0aW9uLCB3aXRoIHRoZSBhbGxlbGUgZm9yIHRoZSBjb25kaXRpb24gZm91bmQgb24gdGhlIFggY2hyb21vc29tZS4gVGhlIGdlbm90eXBlIG9mIGEgY29sb3JibGluZCBtYWxlIGlzIHJlcHJlc2VudGVkIGFzIFg=Yw==WSwgd2hlcmVhcyBhIG1hbGUgd2l0aCBub3JtYWwgdmlzaW9uIHdvdWxkIGhhdmUgdGhlIGdlbm90eXBlIFg=Qw==WS4gTm93LCB0aGluayBhYm91dCB3aGF0IHlvdSBrbm93IGFib3V0IGluaGVyaXRhbmNlLCBhbmQgYXNrIHlvdXJzZWxmIHdobyB0aGF0IGNvbG9yYmxpbmQgbWFsZSB3b3VsZCBoYXZlIGluaGVyaXRlZCBoaXMgWCBjaHJvbW9zb21lIGZyb20uIFJlbWVtYmVyIHRoYXQgdGhlIG5leHQgdGltZSB5b3Ugc2VlIHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24u[Qq]

[c]IFRoZSBtb3RoZXIgY2Fycmllcy BhIHJlY2Vzc2l2ZSBhbGxlbGU=[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCEgQmVjYXVzZSByZWQtZ3JlZW4gY29sb3JibGluZG5lc3MgaXMgYSByZWNlc3NpdmUgc2V4IGxpbmtlZCBjb25kaXRpb24sIGl0JiM4MjE3O3MgYWx3YXlzIHRyYW5zbWl0dGVkIGJ5IHRoZSBtb3RoZXIsIHdobyBwYXNzZXMgYSBjb3B5IG9mIHRoZSByZWNlc3NpdmUgYWxsZWxlIHRvIGhlciBzb25zIHRocm91Z2ggYW4gWCBjaHJvbW9zb21lIGluIGhlciBlZ2cu[Qq]

[c]IFRoZSBmYXRoZXIgcGFzc2VkIGhpcyBhbGxlbGUgZm9yIGNvbG9yYmxpbmRuZXNzIHRvIGhpcyBzb24u[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUga2V5IHRoaW5nIHRvIHJlbWVtYmVyIGhlcmUgaXMgdGhhdCByZWQtZ3JlZW4gY29sb3JibGluZG5lc3MgaXMgYSByZWNlc3NpdmUsIHNleC1saW5rZWQgY29uZGl0aW9uLCB3aXRoIHRoZSBhbGxlbGUgZm9yIHRoZSBjb25kaXRpb24gZm91bmQgb24gdGhlIFggY2hyb21vc29tZS4gVGhlIGdlbm90eXBlIG9mIGEgY29sb3JibGluZCBtYWxlIGlzIHJlcHJlc2VudGVkIGFzIFg=Yw==WSwgd2hlcmVhcyBhIG1hbGUgd2l0aCBub3JtYWwgdmlzaW9uIHdvdWxkIGhhdmUgdGhlIGdlbm90eXBlIFg=Qw==WS4gTm93LCB0aGluayBhYm91dCB3aGF0IHlvdSBrbm93IGFib3V0IGluaGVyaXRhbmNlLCBhbmQgYXNrIHlvdXJzZWxmIHdobyB0aGF0IGNvbG9yYmxpbmQgbWFsZSB3b3VsZCBoYXZlIGluaGVyaXRlZCBoaXMgWCBjaHJvbW9zb21lIGZyb20uIFJlbWVtYmVyIHRoYXQgdGhlIG5leHQgdGltZSB5b3Ugc2VlIHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24u[Qq]

[c]IEJvdGggdGhlIG1vdGhlciBhbmQgdGhlIGZhdGhlciB3ZXJlIGhldGVyb3p5Z291cyBmb3IgdGhlIGNvbG9yLWJsaW5kIGdlbmUu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUga2V5IHRoaW5nIHRvIHJlbWVtYmVyIGhlcmUgaXMgdGhhdCByZWQtZ3JlZW4gY29sb3JibGluZG5lc3MgaXMgYSByZWNlc3NpdmUsIHNleC1saW5rZWQgY29uZGl0aW9uLCB3aXRoIHRoZSBhbGxlbGUgZm9yIHRoZSBjb25kaXRpb24gZm91bmQgb24gdGhlIFggY2hyb21vc29tZS4gVGhlIGdlbm90eXBlIG9mIGEgY29sb3JibGluZCBtYWxlIGlzIHJlcHJlc2VudGVkIGFzIFg=Yw==WSwgd2hlcmVhcyBhIG1hbGUgd2l0aCBub3JtYWwgdmlzaW9uIHdvdWxkIGhhdmUgdGhlIGdlbm90eXBlIFg=Qw==WS4gV2hpbGUgYSBmZW1hbGUgY2FuIGJlIGhldGVyb3p5Z291cyBub3JtYWwsIHdpdGggdGhlIGdlbm90eXBlwqDCoFg=[Qq]CXc, a male can’t be heterozygous. He either inherits the normal allele, or the recessive one (with no countervailing allele on his Y chromosome)

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|958ed6b921334″ question_number=”76″] The karyotype shown below is an example of a

[c]IHRyaX NvbXku[Qq]

[f]IE5pY2Ugam9iISBBcyB5b3Ugb2JzZXJ2ZWQsIHRoZXJlIGFyZSB0aHJlZSBjb3BpZXMgb2YgY2hyb21vc29tZSAxNSwgY3JlYXRpbmcgYSB0cmlzb215Lg==[Qq]

[c]IG1vbm9zb215Lg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBIG1vbm9zb215IHdvdWxkIGhhdmUganVzdCBvbmUgY2hyb21vc29tZSwgaW5zdGVhZCBvZiBhIHBhaXIuIFlvdSBtaWdodCBoYXZlIGJlZW4gY29uZnVzZWQgYnkgdGhlIHNpbmdsZSBYIGFuZCBZIGNocm9tb3NvbWVzLCBidXQgdGhhdCYjODIxNztzIHRoZSBwYWlyIHRoYXQgY3JlYXRlcyBhIGNocm9tb3NvbWFsbHkgbWFsZSBtYW1tYWwuIFRha2UgYSBjbG9zZXIgbG9vayBhdCB0aGUgY2hyb21vc29tZXMsIGFuZCBzZWUgaWYgeW91IGNhbiBmaW5kIGFub3RoZXIgdHlwZSBvZiBjaHJvbW9zb21hbCBkaWZmZXJlbmNlIGluIHRoaXMga2FyeW90eXBlLg==[Qq]

[c]IHBvbHlwbG9pZHku[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBQb2x5cGxvaWR5IGludm9sdmVzIGR1cGxpY2F0aW9uIG9mIGVudGlyZSBjaHJvbW9zb21lIHNldHMuIFRoaXMgaXMgYSBzaW5nbGUgc2V0LsKgVGFrZSBhIGNsb3NlciBsb29rIGF0IHRoZSBjaHJvbW9zb21lcywgYW5kIHNlZSBpZiB5b3UgY2FuIGZpbmQgc29tZSB0eXBlIG9mIGNocm9tb3NvbWFsIGRpZmZlcmVuY2UgdGhhdCBjb3JyZXNwb25kcyB0byBvbmUgb2YgdGhlIGFuc3dlcnM=[Qq]

[c]IGNocm9tb3NvbWFsIGludmVyc2lvbi4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBIGNocm9tb3NvbWFsIGludmVyc2lvbiB3b3VsZG4mIzgyMTc7dCBiZSBwb3NzaWJsZSB0byBkaXNjZXJuIGluIHRoaXMgdHlwZSBvZiBibGFjayBhbmQgd2hpdGUga2FyeW90eXBlLiBBbiBpbnZlcnNpb24gcmVzdWx0cyB3aGVuIGNocm9tb3NvbWFsIHNlZ21lbnRzIGFyZSBmbGlwcGVkLCBhcyBpcyBzaG93biBpbiB0aGUgZGlhZ3JhbSBiZWxvdyAoZnJvbSBub2JlbHByaXplLm9yZyk=

Cg==

Cg==

[Qq]Take a closer look at the chromosomes, and see if you can find some type of chromosomal difference that corresponds to one of the other answers.

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Evolution” dataset_id=”144Qs|958128f345b34″ question_number=”77″] A population geneticist is studying tail feather length in a population of wrens. Within this population, 36% of the sampled individuals have a homozygous recessive phenotype.

What is the frequency of the recessive allele for this trait?

[c]IDAuMzY=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGlzIGlzIGEgcG9wdWxhdGlvbiBnZW5ldGljcyBwcm9ibGVtLCBhbmQgdGhlIGVhc2llc3Qgd2F5IHRvIHNvbHZlIHRoaXMgcHJvYmxlbSBpcyB0byB1c2UgYSBjcm9zcyBtdWx0aXBsaWNhdGlvbiB0YWJsZSAoYSBraW5kIG9mIFB1bm5ldHQgc3F1YXJlKS4gWW91IHN0YXJ0IGZyb20gdGhlIGlkZWEgdGhhdCA=cCArIHEgPSAxLCB3aGVyZQ==IHA=IHJlcHJlc2VudHMgdGhlIGZyZXF1ZW5jeSBvZiB0aGUgZG9taW5hbnQgYWxsZWxlLCBhbmQg[Qq]q represents the frequency of the recessive allele. If you plugged these values into a cross multiplication table, you’d get:

 p q
p  p2 pq
 q  pq q2

You’re told in the problem that 0.36 (36 percent) of the population has this recessive phenotype. So plug that value into the lower right corner of the square.Note that q2 represents the frequency of individuals with the recessive phenotype.

 p q
p  p2 pq
 q  pq .36

To find the frequency of the recessive allele (q), just take the square root of q2 (in other words, take the square root of 0.36). I’ll leave that step to you.

[c]IDAuNzQ=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGlzIGlzIGEgcG9wdWxhdGlvbiBnZW5ldGljcyBwcm9ibGVtLCBhbmQgdGhlIGVhc2llc3Qgd2F5IHRvIHNvbHZlIHRoaXMgcHJvYmxlbSBpcyB0byB1c2UgYSBjcm9zcyBtdWx0aXBsaWNhdGlvbiB0YWJsZSAoYSBraW5kIG9mIFB1bm5ldHQgc3F1YXJlKS4gWW91IHN0YXJ0IGZyb20gdGhlIGlkZWEgdGhhdCA=cCArIHEgPSAxLCB3aGVyZQ==IHA=IHJlcHJlc2VudHMgdGhlIGZyZXF1ZW5jeSBvZiB0aGUgZG9taW5hbnQgYWxsZWxlLCBhbmQg[Qq]q represents the frequency of the recessive allele. If you plugged these values into a cross multiplication table, you’d get:

 p q
p  p2 pq
 q  pq q2

You’re told in the problem that 0.36 (36 percent) of the population has this recessive phenotype. So plug that value into the lower right corner of the square.Note that q2 represents the frequency of individuals with the recessive phenotype.

 p q
p  p2 pq
 q  pq .36

To find the frequency of the recessive allele (q), just take the square root of q2 (in other words, take the square root of 0.36). I’ll leave that step to you.

[c]IDAu Ng==[Qq]

[f]IEZhYnVsb3VzISBIYXJkeSBhbmQgV2VpbmJlcmcgKHdobyBkZXZlbG9wZWQgdGhlIG1hdGggZm9yIHRoaXMpIHdvdWxkIGJlIHByb3VkLiBJZiB0aGUgZnJlcXVlbmN5IG9mIHRoZSByZWNlc3NpdmUgcGhlbm90eXBlIGlzIDAuMzYsIHRoZW4gKGFzc3VtaW5nIHRoZSBwb3B1bGF0aW9uIGlzIGluIEhhcmR5LVdlaW5iZXJnIGVxdWlsaWJyaXVtKSwgdGhlIGZyZXF1ZW5jeSBvZiB0aGUgcmVjZXNzaXZlIGFsbGVsZSB3aWxsIGJlIDAuNi4=[Qq]

[c]IDAuNA==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGlzIGlzIGEgcG9wdWxhdGlvbiBnZW5ldGljcyBwcm9ibGVtLCBhbmQgdGhlIGVhc2llc3Qgd2F5IHRvIHNvbHZlIHRoaXMgcHJvYmxlbSBpcyB0byB1c2UgYSBjcm9zcyBtdWx0aXBsaWNhdGlvbiB0YWJsZSAoYSBraW5kIG9mIFB1bm5ldHQgc3F1YXJlKS4gWW91IHN0YXJ0IGZyb20gdGhlIGlkZWEgdGhhdCA=cCArIHEgPSAxLCB3aGVyZQ==IHA=IHJlcHJlc2VudHMgdGhlIGZyZXF1ZW5jeSBvZiB0aGUgZG9taW5hbnQgYWxsZWxlLCBhbmQg[Qq]q represents the frequency of the recessive allele. If you plugged these values into a cross multiplication table, you’d get:

 p q
p  p2 pq
 q  pq q2

You’re told in the problem that 0.36 (36 percent) of the population has this recessive phenotype. So plug that value into the lower right corner of the square.Note that q2 represents the frequency of individuals with the recessive phenotype.

 p q
p  p2 pq
 q  pq .36

To find the frequency of the recessive allele (q), just take the square root of q2 (in other words, take the square root of 0.36). I’ll leave that step to you.

[c]IDAuNDg=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGlzIGlzIGEgcG9wdWxhdGlvbiBnZW5ldGljcyBwcm9ibGVtLCBhbmQgdGhlIGVhc2llc3Qgd2F5IHRvIHNvbHZlIHRoaXMgcHJvYmxlbSBpcyB0byB1c2UgYSBjcm9zcyBtdWx0aXBsaWNhdGlvbiB0YWJsZSAoYSBraW5kIG9mIFB1bm5ldHQgc3F1YXJlKS4gWW91IHN0YXJ0IGZyb20gdGhlIGlkZWEgdGhhdCA=cCArIHEgPSAxLCB3aGVyZQ==IHA=IHJlcHJlc2VudHMgdGhlIGZyZXF1ZW5jeSBvZiB0aGUgZG9taW5hbnQgYWxsZWxlLCBhbmQg[Qq]q represents the frequency of the recessive allele. If you plugged these values into a cross multiplication table, you’d get:

 p q
p  p2 pq
 q  pq q2

You’re told in the problem that 0.36 (36 percent) of the population has this recessive phenotype. So plug that value into the lower right corner of the square.Note that q2 represents the frequency of individuals with the recessive phenotype.

 p q
p  p2 pq
 q  pq .36

To find the frequency of the recessive allele (q), just take the square root of q2 (in other words, take the square root of 0.36). I’ll leave that step to you.

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Evolution” dataset_id=”144Qs|957355ecabf34″ question_number=”78″] A population geneticist is studying tail feather length in a population of wrens. Within this population, 36% of the sampled individuals have a homozygous recessive phenotype. What is the frequency of the dominant allele for this trait?

[c]IDAuMzY=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGlzIGlzIGEgcG9wdWxhdGlvbiBnZW5ldGljcyBwcm9ibGVtLCBhbmQgdGhlIGVhc2llc3Qgd2F5IHRvIHNvbHZlIHRoaXMgcHJvYmxlbSBpcyB0byB1c2UgYSBjcm9zcyBtdWx0aXBsaWNhdGlvbiB0YWJsZSAoYSBraW5kIG9mIFB1bm5ldHQgc3F1YXJlKS4gWW91IHN0YXJ0IGZyb20gdGhlIGlkZWEgdGhhdCA=cCArIHEgPSAxLCB3aGVyZQ==IHA=IHJlcHJlc2VudHMgdGhlIGZyZXF1ZW5jeSBvZiB0aGUgZG9taW5hbnQgYWxsZWxlLCBhbmQg[Qq]q represents the frequency of the recessive allele. If you plugged these values into a cross multiplication table, you’d get:

 p q
p  p2 pq
 q  pq q2

You’re told in the problem that 0.36 (36 percent) of the population has this recessive phenotype. So plug that value into the lower right corner of the square.Note that q2 represents the frequency of individuals with the recessive phenotype.

 p q
p  p2 pq
 q  pq .36

To find the frequency of the recessive allele (q), just take the square root of q2 (in other words, take the square root of 0.36). That gives you the value of q. To find the frequency of p, just remember that p = q = 1. That means that 1 – q = p. What’s 1 – 0.6?

[c]IDAuNzQ=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGlzIGlzIGEgcG9wdWxhdGlvbiBnZW5ldGljcyBwcm9ibGVtLCBhbmQgdGhlIGVhc2llc3Qgd2F5IHRvIHNvbHZlIHRoaXMgcHJvYmxlbSBpcyB0byB1c2UgYSBjcm9zcyBtdWx0aXBsaWNhdGlvbiB0YWJsZSAoYSBraW5kIG9mIFB1bm5ldHQgc3F1YXJlKS4gWW91IHN0YXJ0IGZyb20gdGhlIGlkZWEgdGhhdCA=cCArIHEgPSAxLCB3aGVyZQ==IHA=IHJlcHJlc2VudHMgdGhlIGZyZXF1ZW5jeSBvZiB0aGUgZG9taW5hbnQgYWxsZWxlLCBhbmQg[Qq]q represents the frequency of the recessive allele. If you plugged these values into a cross multiplication table, you’d get:

 p q
p  p2 pq
 q  pq q2

You’re told in the problem that 0.36 (36 percent) of the population has this recessive phenotype. So plug that value into the lower right corner of the square.Note that q2 represents the frequency of individuals with the recessive phenotype.

 p q
p  p2 pq
 q  pq .36

To find the frequency of the recessive allele (q), just take the square root of q2 (in other words, take the square root of 0.36). That gives you the value of q. To find the frequency of p, just remember that p = q = 1. That means that 1 – q = p. What’s 1 – 0.6?

[c]IDAuNg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAwLjYgaXMgdGhlIGZyZXF1ZW5jeSBvZiB0aGUgcmVjZXNzaXZlIGFsbGVsZS4gSSYjODIxNzttIG5vdCBzdXJlIHdoZXJlIHlvdSB3ZW50IHdyb25nLCBzbyBJJiM4MjE3O2xsIHdhbGsgeW91IHRocm91Z2ggdGhlIHdob2xlIHRoaW5nLg==

Cg==

VGhpcyBpcyBhIHBvcHVsYXRpb24gZ2VuZXRpY3MgcHJvYmxlbSwgYW5kIHRoZSBlYXNpZXN0IHdheSB0byBzb2x2ZSB0aGlzIHByb2JsZW0gaXMgdG8gdXNlIGEgY3Jvc3MgbXVsdGlwbGljYXRpb24gdGFibGUgKGEga2luZCBvZiBQdW5uZXR0IHNxdWFyZSkuIFlvdSBzdGFydCBmcm9tIHRoZSBpZGVhIHRoYXQgcCArIHEgPSAxLCB3aGVyZQ==[Qq] p represents the frequency of the dominant allele, and q represents the frequency of the recessive allele. If you plugged these values into a cross multiplication table, you’d get:

 p q
p  p2 pq
 q  pq q2

You’re told in the problem that 0.36 (36 percent) of the population has this recessive phenotype. So plug that value into the lower right corner of the square.Note that q2 represents the frequency of individuals with the recessive phenotype.

 p q
p  p2 pq
 q  pq .36

To find the frequency of the recessive allele (q), just take the square root of q2 (in other words, take the square root of 0.36). That gives you the value of q. To find the frequency of p, just remember that p = q = 1. That means that 1 – q = p. What’s 1 – 0.6?

[c]IDAu NA==[Qq]

[f]IEZhYnVsb3VzIcKgIElmIHRoZSBmcmVxdWVuY3kgb2YgdGhlIHJlY2Vzc2l2ZSBwaGVub3R5cGUgaXMgMC4zNiwgdGhlbiAoYXNzdW1pbmcgdGhlIHBvcHVsYXRpb24gaXMgaW4gSGFyZHktV2VpbmJlcmcgZXF1aWxpYnJpdW0pLCB0aGVuIHRoZSBmcmVxdWVuY3kgb2YgdGhlIHJlY2Vzc2l2ZSBhbGxlbGUgd2lsbCBiZSAwLjYuIFNpbmNlIHAgKyBxID0gMSwgdGhlbiB5b3Ugc2ltcGx5IHN1YnRyYWN0IDEgJiM4MjExOyAwLjYgdG8gZ2V0IHRoZSBhbnN3ZXIsIDAuNC4=[Qq]

[c]IDAuNDg=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAwLjQ4IGlzIHRoZSBmcmVxdWVuY3kgb2YgaGV0ZXJvenlnb3RlcyBpbiB0aGlzIHBvcHVsYXRpb24uIEkmIzgyMTc7bSBub3Qgc3VyZSB3aGVyZSB5b3Ugd2VudCB3cm9uZywgc28gSSYjODIxNztsbCB3YWxrIHlvdSB0aHJvdWdoIHRoZSB3aG9sZSB0aGluZy4=

Cg==

VGhpcyBpcyBhIHBvcHVsYXRpb24gZ2VuZXRpY3MgcHJvYmxlbSwgYW5kIHRoZSBlYXNpZXN0IHdheSB0byBzb2x2ZSB0aGlzIHByb2JsZW0gaXMgdG8gdXNlIGEgY3Jvc3MgbXVsdGlwbGljYXRpb24gdGFibGUgKGEga2luZCBvZiBQdW5uZXR0IHNxdWFyZSkuIFlvdSBzdGFydCBmcm9tIHRoZSBpZGVhIHRoYXQgcCArIHEgPSAxLCB3aGVyZQ==[Qq] p represents the frequency of the dominant allele, and q represents the frequency of the recessive allele. If you plugged these values into a cross multiplication table, you’d get:

 p q
p  p2 pq
 q  pq q2

You’re told in the problem that 0.36 (36 percent) of the population has this recessive phenotype. So plug that value into the lower right corner of the square.Note that q2 represents the frequency of individuals with the recessive phenotype.

 p q
p  p2 pq
 q  pq .36

To find the frequency of the recessive allele (q), just take the square root of q2 (in other words, take the square root of 0.36). That gives you the value of q. To find the frequency of p, just remember that p = q = 1. That means that 1 – q = p. What’s 1 – 0.6?

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Evolution” dataset_id=”144Qs|95651323d7734″ question_number=”79″] A population geneticist is studying tail feather length in a population of wrens. Within this population, 36% of the sampled individuals have a homozygous recessive phenotype. What is the frequency of the heterozygotes within this population?

[c]IDAuMzY=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAwLjM2IGlzIHRoZSBmcmVxdWVuY3kgb2YgaG9tb3p5Z291cyBkb21pbmFudHMgaW4gdGhpcyBwb3B1bGF0aW9uLsKgSSYjODIxNzttIG5vdCBzdXJlIHdoZXJlIHlvdSB3ZW50IHdyb25nLCBzbyBJJiM4MjE3O2xsIHdhbGsgeW91IHRocm91Z2ggdGhlIHdob2xlIHRoaW5nLg==

Cg==

VGhpcyBpcyBhIHBvcHVsYXRpb24gZ2VuZXRpY3MgcHJvYmxlbSwgYW5kIHRoZSBlYXNpZXN0IHdheSB0byBzb2x2ZSB0aGlzIHByb2JsZW0gaXMgdG8gdXNlIGEgY3Jvc3MgbXVsdGlwbGljYXRpb24gdGFibGUgKGEga2luZCBvZiBQdW5uZXR0IHNxdWFyZSkuIFlvdSBzdGFydCBmcm9tIHRoZSBpZGVhIHRoYXQgcCArIHEgPSAxLCB3aGVyZQ==[Qq] p represents the frequency of the dominant allele, and q represents the frequency of the recessive allele.

If you plugged these values into a cross multiplication table, you’d get:

 p q
p  p2 pq
 q  pq q2

You’re told in the problem that 0.36 (36 percent) of the population has this recessive phenotype. So plug that value into the lower right corner of the square.Note that q2 represents the frequency of individuals with the recessive phenotype.

 p q
p  p2 pq
 q  pq .36

To find the frequency of the recessive allele (q), just take the square root of q2 (in other words, take the square root of 0.36). That gives you the value of q, which in this case is equal to 0.6. If q = 0.6, then p = 1 – 0.6, or 0.4.

There’s just one more step. The frequency of heterozygotes in a population is 2pq. So, multiply 2 times p times q and you’ll have your answer.

[c]IDAuNzQ=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBJJiM4MjE3O20gbm90IHN1cmUgd2hlcmUgeW91IHdlbnQgd3JvbmcsIHNvIEkmIzgyMTc7bGwgd2FsayB5b3UgdGhyb3VnaCB0aGUgd2hvbGUgdGhpbmcu

Cg==

VGhpcyBpcyBhIHBvcHVsYXRpb24gZ2VuZXRpY3MgcHJvYmxlbSwgYW5kIHRoZSBlYXNpZXN0IHdheSB0byBzb2x2ZSB0aGlzIHByb2JsZW0gaXMgdG8gdXNlIGEgY3Jvc3MgbXVsdGlwbGljYXRpb24gdGFibGUgKGEga2luZCBvZiBQdW5uZXR0IHNxdWFyZSkuIFlvdSBzdGFydCBmcm9tIHRoZSBpZGVhIHRoYXQgcCArIHEgPSAxLCB3aGVyZQ==[Qq] p represents the frequency of the dominant allele, and q represents the frequency of the recessive allele.

If you plugged these values into a cross multiplication table, you’d get:

 p q
p  p2 pq
 q  pq q2

You’re told in the problem that 0.36 (36 percent) of the population has this recessive phenotype. So plug that value into the lower right corner of the square.Note that q2 represents the frequency of individuals with the recessive phenotype.

 p q
p  p2 pq
 q  pq .36

To find the frequency of the recessive allele (q), just take the square root of q2 (in other words, take the square root of 0.36). That gives you the value of q, which in this case is equal to 0.6. If q = 0.6, then p = 1 – 0.6, or 0.4.

There’s just one more step. The frequency of heterozygotes in a population is 2pq. So, multiply 2 times p times q and you’ll have your answer.

[c]IDAuNg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAwLjYgaXMgdGhlIGZyZXF1ZW5jeSBvZiB0aGUgcmVjZXNzaXZlIGFsbGVsZS4gVGhhdCYjODIxNztzIGEgZ29vZCBzdGFydCwgYnV0IHNpbmNlIEkmIzgyMTc7bSBub3Qgc3VyZSB3aGVyZSB5b3Ugd2VudCB3cm9uZywgSSYjODIxNztsbCB3YWxrIHlvdSB0aHJvdWdoIHRoZSB3aG9sZSB0aGluZy4=

Cg==

VGhpcyBpcyBhIHBvcHVsYXRpb24gZ2VuZXRpY3MgcHJvYmxlbSwgYW5kIHRoZSBlYXNpZXN0IHdheSB0byBzb2x2ZSB0aGlzIHByb2JsZW0gaXMgdG8gdXNlIGEgY3Jvc3MgbXVsdGlwbGljYXRpb24gdGFibGUgKGEga2luZCBvZiBQdW5uZXR0IHNxdWFyZSkuIFlvdSBzdGFydCBmcm9tIHRoZSBpZGVhIHRoYXQgcCArIHEgPSAxLCB3aGVyZQ==[Qq] p represents the frequency of the dominant allele, and q represents the frequency of the recessive allele.

If you plugged these values into a cross multiplication table, you’d get:

 p q
p  p2 pq
 q  pq q2

You’re told in the problem that 0.36 (36 percent) of the population has this recessive phenotype. So plug that value into the lower right corner of the square.Note that q2 represents the frequency of individuals with the recessive phenotype.

 p q
p  p2 pq
 q  pq .36

To find the frequency of the recessive allele (q), just take the square root of q2 (in other words, take the square root of 0.36). That gives you the value of q, which in this case is equal to 0.6. If q = 0.6, then p = 1 – 0.6, or 0.4.

There’s just one more step. The frequency of heterozygotes in a population is 2pq. So, multiply 2 times p times q and you’ll have your answer.

[c]IDAuNA==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAwLjQgaXMgdGhlIGZyZXF1ZW5jeSBvZiB0aGUgZG9taW5hdCBhbGxlbGUuIFRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGdvb2Qgc3RhcnQsIGJ1dCBzaW5jZSBJJiM4MjE3O20gbm90IHN1cmUgd2hlcmUgeW91IHdlbnQgd3JvbmcsIEkmIzgyMTc7bGwgd2FsayB5b3UgdGhyb3VnaCB0aGUgd2hvbGUgdGhpbmcu

Cg==

VGhpcyBpcyBhIHBvcHVsYXRpb24gZ2VuZXRpY3MgcHJvYmxlbSwgYW5kIHRoZSBlYXNpZXN0IHdheSB0byBzb2x2ZSB0aGlzIHByb2JsZW0gaXMgdG8gdXNlIGEgY3Jvc3MgbXVsdGlwbGljYXRpb24gdGFibGUgKGEga2luZCBvZiBQdW5uZXR0IHNxdWFyZSkuIFlvdSBzdGFydCBmcm9tIHRoZSBpZGVhIHRoYXQgcCArIHEgPSAxLCB3aGVyZQ==[Qq] p represents the frequency of the dominant allele, and q represents the frequency of the recessive allele.

If you plugged these values into a cross multiplication table, you’d get:

 p q
p  p2 pq
 q  pq q2

You’re told in the problem that 0.36 (36 percent) of the population has this recessive phenotype. So plug that value into the lower right corner of the square.Note that q2 represents the frequency of individuals with the recessive phenotype.

 p q
p  p2 pq
 q  pq .36

To find the frequency of the recessive allele (q), just take the square root of q2 (in other words, take the square root of 0.36). That gives you the value of q, which in this case is equal to 0.6. If q = 0.6, then p = 1 – 0.6, or 0.4.

There’s just one more step. The frequency of heterozygotes in a population is 2pq. So, multiply 2 times p times q and you’ll have your answer.

[c]IDAu NDg=[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCEgVGhlIHBlcmNlbnRhZ2Ugb2YgaGV0ZXJvenlnb3RlcyBpbiB0aGUgcG9wdWxhdGlvbiBpcyAwLjQ4Lg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Evolution” dataset_id=”144Qs|9557655dfbf34″ question_number=”80″] A population geneticist is studying tail feather length in a population of wrens. Within this population, 36% of the sampled individuals have a homozygous recessive phenotype. What percentage of individuals will have the dominant phenotype?

[c]IDAuMzY=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAwLjM2IGlzIHRoZSBmcmVxdWVuY3kgb2YgdGhlIGluZGl2aWR1YWxzIHdpdGggdGhlIA==cmVjZXNzaXZlIHBoZW5vdHlwZS4gWW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIGxvb2tpbmcgZm9yIHRoZSBwZXJjZW50YWdlIG9mIGluZGl2aWR1YWxzIHdpdGggdGhlIA==ZG9taW5hbnQ=IHBoZW5vdHlwZS4=[Qq]

[c]IDAuNzQ=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgdG9sZCBpbiB0aGUgcHJvYmxlbSB0aGF0IDAuMzYgKDM2IHBlcmNlbnQpIG9mIHRoZSBwb3B1bGF0aW9uIGhhcyB0aGlzIHJlY2Vzc2l2ZSBwaGVub3R5cGUuIElmIDM2JSBvZiB0aGUgcG9wdWxhdGlvbiBoYXMgdGhlIHJlY2Vzc2l2ZSBwaGVub3R5cGUsIHdoYXQgcGVyY2VudGFnZSBoYXMgdGhlIGRvbWluYW50IHBoZW5vdHlwZT8=[Qq]

[c]IDAu NjQ=[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gSWYgMzYlIG9mIHRoZSBwb3B1bGF0aW9uIGhhcyB0aGUgcmVjZXNzaXZlIHBoZW5vdHlwZSwgdGhlbiBldmVyeWJvZHkgZWxzZSBpbiB0aGUgcG9wdWxhdGlvbiBoYXMgdG8gaGF2ZSB0aGUgZG9taW5hbnQgcGhlbm90eXBlLiAxICYjODIxMTsgMC4zNiA9IDAuNjQu[Qq]

[c]IDAuNDA=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgdG9sZCBpbiB0aGUgcHJvYmxlbSB0aGF0IDAuMzYgKDM2IHBlcmNlbnQpIG9mIHRoZSBwb3B1bGF0aW9uIGhhcyB0aGlzIHJlY2Vzc2l2ZSBwaGVub3R5cGUuIElmIDM2JSBvZiB0aGUgcG9wdWxhdGlvbiBoYXMgdGhlIHJlY2Vzc2l2ZSBwaGVub3R5cGUsIHdoYXQgcGVyY2VudGFnZSBoYXMgdGhlIGRvbWluYW50IHBoZW5vdHlwZT8=[Qq]

[c]IDAuNDg=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAwLjQ4IGlzIHRoZSBmcmVxdWVuY3kgb2YgaGV0ZXJvenlnb3Rlcy4gWW91IGxvb2tpbmcgZm9yIHRoZSBudW1iZXIgb2YgaW5kaXZpZHVhbHMgd2l0aCB0aGUgZG9taW5hbnQgcGhlbm90eXBlLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgdG9sZCBpbiB0aGUgcHJvYmxlbSB0aGF0IDAuMzYgKDM2IHBlcmNlbnQpIG9mIHRoZSBwb3B1bGF0aW9uIGhhcyB0aGlzIHJlY2Vzc2l2ZSBwaGVub3R5cGUuIElmIDM2JSBvZiB0aGUgcG9wdWxhdGlvbiBoYXMgdGhlIHJlY2Vzc2l2ZSBwaGVub3R5cGUsIHdoYXQgcGVyY2VudGFnZSBoYXMgdGhlIGRvbWluYW50IHBoZW5vdHlwZT8=[Qq]

 

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Evolution” dataset_id=”144Qs|954a4c9b19734″ question_number=”81″] The image below is a scatter graph that shows the growth rate and egg productivity in a flock of chickens.

A breeder has divided this flock into four groups, A, B, C, and D. If the breeder wants to increase the flocks’ growth rate and egg-laying productivity, which group should she select from?

[c]IEE=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGlzIGlzIGEgcXVlc3Rpb24gYWJvdXQgYXJ0aWZpY2lhbCBzZWxlY3Rpb24sIGFuZCB0aGUgYmFzaWMgaWRlYSBpcyB0aGF0IHlvdSB3YW50IHRvIHVzZSBhbmltYWxzIHRoYXQgaGF2ZSBkZXNpcmVkIHRyYWl0cyBhcyBicmVlZGluZyBzdG9jay4gVGhlIGJyZWVkZXIgd2FudHMgYm90aCBoaWdoIGdyb3d0aCByYXRlIGFuZCBlZ2cgbGF5aW5nIHByb2R1Y3Rpdml0eS4gVGFrZSBhIGxvb2sgYXQgdGhlIGxhYmVscyBmb3IgZWFjaCBheGlzIG9uIHRoaXMgZ3JhcGguIFRoZSBjaGlja2VucyBpbiBncm91cCA=QQ==IGhhdmUgaGlnaCBlZ2cgbGF5aW5nIHByb2R1Y3Rpdml0eSAodGhhdCYjODIxNztzIHdoeSB0aGV5JiM4MjE3O3JlIHVwIG9uIHRoZSBZIGF4aXMsIHdoaWNoIGlzIGZvciBlZ2cgbGF5aW5nIHByb2R1Y3Rpdml0eSkuIFRoZXkgYXJlLCBob3dldmVyLCBsb3cgaW4gdGVybXMgb2YgZ3Jvd3RoIHJhdGUgKHdoaWNoIGlzIHdoeSB0aGV5JiM4MjE3O3JlIG9uIHRoZSBsZWZ0IG9mIHRoZSBYIGF4aXMsIHdoaWNoIGlzIGdyb3d0aCByYXRlKS4gV2hpY2ggZ3JvdXAgaXMgaGlnaCBmb3IgYm90aCBlZ2cgbGF5aW5nIA==YW5kIGdyb3d0aCByYXRlPw==[Qq]

[c]IE I=[Qq]

[f]IFdheSB0byBnbyEgVGhlIGJlc3QgYnJlZWRpbmcgc3RvY2sgd291bGQgYmUgdGhvc2UgY2hpY2tlbnMgd2l0aCBoaWdoIGdyb3d0aCByYXRlIGFuZCBoaWdoIGVnZyBsYXlpbmcsIGFuZCB0aGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgZ29pbmcgdG8gYmUgZ3JvdXAgQi4=[Qq]

[c]IEM=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGlzIGlzIGEgcXVlc3Rpb24gYWJvdXQgYXJ0aWZpY2lhbCBzZWxlY3Rpb24sIGFuZCB0aGUgYmFzaWMgaWRlYSBpcyB0aGF0IHlvdSB3YW50IHRvIHVzZSBhbmltYWxzIHRoYXQgaGF2ZSBkZXNpcmVkIHRyYWl0cyBhcyBicmVlZGluZyBzdG9jay4gVGhlIGJyZWVkZXIgd2FudHMgYm90aCBoaWdoIGdyb3d0aCByYXRlIGFuZCBlZ2cgbGF5aW5nIHByb2R1Y3Rpdml0eS4gVGFrZSBhIGxvb2sgYXQgdGhlIGxhYmVscyBmb3IgZWFjaCBheGlzIG9uIHRoaXMgZ3JhcGguIFRoZSBjaGlja2VucyBpbiBncm91cCA=Qw==IGhhdmUgbG93IGVnZyBsYXlpbmcgcHJvZHVjdGl2aXR5ICh0aGF0JiM4MjE3O3Mgd2h5IHRoZXkmIzgyMTc7cmUgZG93biBvbiB0aGUgWSBheGlzLCB3aGljaCBpcyBmb3IgZWdnIGxheWluZyBwcm9kdWN0aXZpdHkpLiBCdXQgdGhleSYjODIxNztyZSBoaWdoIGluIHRlcm1zIG9mIGdyb3d0aCByYXRlICh3aGljaCBpcyB3aHkgdGhleSYjODIxNztyZSBvbiB0aGUgcmlnaHQgb2YgdGhlIFggYXhpcywgd2hpY2ggaXMgZ3Jvd3RoIHJhdGUpLiBXaGljaCBncm91cCBpcyBoaWdoIGZvciBib3RoIGVnZyBsYXlpbmcgYW5kIGdyb3d0aCByYXRlPw==[Qq]

[c]IEQ=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGlzIGlzIGEgcXVlc3Rpb24gYWJvdXQgYXJ0aWZpY2lhbCBzZWxlY3Rpb24sIGFuZCB0aGUgYmFzaWMgaWRlYSBpcyB0aGF0IHlvdSB3YW50IHRvIHVzZSBhbmltYWxzIHRoYXQgaGF2ZSBkZXNpcmVkIHRyYWl0cyBhcyBicmVlZGluZyBzdG9jay4gVGhlIGJyZWVkZXIgd2FudHMgYm90aCBoaWdoIGdyb3d0aCByYXRlIGFuZCBlZ2cgbGF5aW5nIHByb2R1Y3Rpdml0eS4gVGFrZSBhIGxvb2sgYXQgdGhlIGxhYmVscyBmb3IgZWFjaCBheGlzIG9uIHRoaXMgZ3JhcGguIFRoZSBjaGlja2VucyBpbiBncm91cCA=RA==IGhhdmUgbG93IGVnZyBsYXlpbmcgcHJvZHVjdGl2aXR5ICh0aGF0JiM4MjE3O3Mgd2h5IHRoZXkmIzgyMTc7cmUgZG93biBvbiB0aGUgWSBheGlzLCB3aGljaCBpcyBmb3IgZWdnIGxheWluZyBwcm9kdWN0aXZpdHkpLiBUaGV5JiM4MjE3O3JlIGFsc28gbG93IGluIHRlcm1zIG9mIGdyb3d0aCByYXRlICh3aGljaCBpcyB3aHkgdGhleSYjODIxNztyZSBvbiB0aGUgbGVmdCBvZiB0aGUgWCBheGlzLCB3aGljaCBpcyBncm93dGggcmF0ZSkuIFdoaWNoIGdyb3VwIGlzIGhpZ2ggZm9yIGJvdGggZWdnIGxheWluZyA=YW5kIGdyb3d0aCByYXRlPw==[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Evolution” dataset_id=”144Qs|953ce956ba734″ question_number=”82″] The image below is a scatter graph that shows the growth rate and egg productivity in a flock of chickens.

A breeder has divided this flock into four groups, A, B, C, and D. If the breeder is selecting for maximum growth rate (for meat production), and has less interest in egg production, which group should she select from?

[c]IEE=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGlzIGlzIGEgcXVlc3Rpb24gYWJvdXQgYXJ0aWZpY2lhbCBzZWxlY3Rpb24sIGFuZCB0aGUgYmFzaWMgaWRlYSBpcyB0aGF0IHlvdSB3YW50IHRvIHVzZSBhbmltYWxzIHRoYXQgaGF2ZSBkZXNpcmVkIHRyYWl0cyBhcyBicmVlZGluZyBzdG9jay4gVGhlIGJyZWVkZXIgd2FudHMgYSBoaWdoIGdyb3d0aCByYXRlLCBidXQgaGFzIGxlc3MgaW50ZXJlc3QgaW4gZWdnIGxheWluZyBwcm9kdWN0aXZpdHkuIFRha2UgYSBsb29rIGF0IHRoZSBsYWJlbHMgZm9yIGVhY2ggYXhpcyBvbiB0aGlzIGdyYXBoLiBUaGUgY2hpY2tlbnMgaW4gZ3JvdXAgQQ==IGhhdmUgaGlnaCBlZ2cgbGF5aW5nIHByb2R1Y3Rpdml0eSAodGhhdCYjODIxNztzIHdoeSB0aGV5JiM4MjE3O3JlIHVwIG9uIHRoZSBZIGF4aXMsIHdoaWNoIGlzIGZvciBlZ2cgbGF5aW5nIHByb2R1Y3Rpdml0eSkuIFRoZXkgYXJlLCBob3dldmVyLCBsb3cgaW4gdGVybXMgb2YgZ3Jvd3RoIHJhdGUgKHdoaWNoIGlzIHdoeSB0aGV5JiM4MjE3O3JlIG9uIHRoZSBsZWZ0IG9mIHRoZSBYIGF4aXMsIHdoaWNoIGlzIGdyb3d0aCByYXRlKS4gV2hpY2ggZ3JvdXAgaXMgaGlnaCBmb3IgZ3Jvd3RoIHJhdGUsIGJ1dCBsb3cgZm9yIGVnZyBsYXlpbmc/[Qq]

[c]IEI=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGlzIGlzIGEgcXVlc3Rpb24gYWJvdXQgYXJ0aWZpY2lhbCBzZWxlY3Rpb24sIGFuZCB0aGUgYmFzaWMgaWRlYSBpcyB0aGF0IHlvdSB3YW50IHRvIHVzZSBhbmltYWxzIHRoYXQgaGF2ZSBkZXNpcmVkIHRyYWl0cyBhcyBicmVlZGluZyBzdG9jay4gVGhlIGJyZWVkZXIgd2FudHMgYSBoaWdoIGdyb3d0aCByYXRlLCBidXQgaXNuJiM4MjE3O3QgaW50ZXJlc3RlZCBpbiBoaWdoIGVnZyBwcm9kdWN0aW9uLiBUYWtlIGEgbG9vayBhdCB0aGUgbGFiZWxzIGZvciBlYWNoIGF4aXMgb24gdGhpcyBncmFwaC4gVGhlIGNoaWNrZW5zIGluIGdyb3VwIA==Qg==IGhhdmUgaGlnaCBlZ2cgbGF5aW5nIHByb2R1Y3Rpdml0eSAodGhhdCYjODIxNztzIHdoeSB0aGV5JiM4MjE3O3JlIHVwIG9uIHRoZSBZIGF4aXMsIHdoaWNoIGlzIGZvciBlZ2cgbGF5aW5nIHByb2R1Y3Rpdml0eSkuIFRoZXkgYXJlIGFsc28gaGlnaCBpbiB0ZXJtcyBvZiBncm93dGggcmF0ZSAod2hpY2ggaXMgd2h5IHRoZXkmIzgyMTc7cmUgb24gdGhlIGxlZnQgb2YgdGhlIFggYXhpcywgd2hpY2ggaXMgZ3Jvd3RoIHJhdGUpLiBXaGljaCBncm91cCB3aWxsIHByb3ZpZGUgdGhlIGJyZWVkZXIgd2l0aCBicmVlZGluZyBzdG9jayB0aGF0IHdpbGwgcmVzdWx0IGluIGhpZ2ggZ3Jvd3RoIHJhdGUsIGJ1dCBsb3dlciBlZ2cgbGF5aW5nIGNhcGFiaWxpdHk/[Qq]

[c]IE M=[Qq]

[f]IFRlcnJpZmljISBHcm91cCBDIGlzIHRoZSBncm91cCB0byBjaG9vc2UgZnJvbSBpZiB5b3Ugd2FudCBicmVlZGluZyBzdG9jayBmb3IgY2hpY2tlbnMgd2l0aCBoaWdoIGdyb3d0aCByYXRlLCBidXQgbG93IGVnZy1sYXlpbmcgY2FwYWJpbGl0eS4=[Qq]

[c]IEQ=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGlzIGlzIGEgcXVlc3Rpb24gYWJvdXQgYXJ0aWZpY2lhbCBzZWxlY3Rpb24sIGFuZCB0aGUgYmFzaWMgaWRlYSBpcyB0aGF0IHlvdSB3YW50IHRvIHVzZSBhbmltYWxzIHRoYXQgaGF2ZSBkZXNpcmVkIHRyYWl0cyBhcyBicmVlZGluZyBzdG9jay4gVGhlIGJyZWVkZXIgd2FudHMgYSBoaWdoIGdyb3d0aCByYXRlLCBidXQgaXNuJiM4MjE3O3QgaW50ZXJlc3RlZCBpbiBoaWdoIGVnZyBwcm9kdWN0aW9uLiBUYWtlIGEgbG9vayBhdCB0aGUgbGFiZWxzIGZvciBlYWNoIGF4aXMgb24gdGhpcyBncmFwaC4gVGhlIGNoaWNrZW5zIGluIGdyb3VwIA==RA==IGhhdmUgbG93IGVnZyBsYXlpbmcgcHJvZHVjdGl2aXR5ICh0aGF0JiM4MjE3O3Mgd2h5IHRoZXkmIzgyMTc7cmUgZG93biBvbiB0aGUgWSBheGlzLCB3aGljaCBpcyBmb3IgZWdnIGxheWluZyBwcm9kdWN0aXZpdHkpLiBUaGV5IGFyZSBhbHNvIGxvdyBpbiB0ZXJtcyBvZiBncm93dGggcmF0ZSAod2hpY2ggaXMgd2h5IHRoZXkmIzgyMTc7cmUgb24gdGhlIHJpZ2h0IG9mIHRoZSBYIGF4aXMsIHdoaWNoIGlzIGdyb3d0aCByYXRlKS4gV2hpY2ggZ3JvdXAgd2lsbCBwcm92aWRlIHRoZSBicmVlZGVyIHdpdGggYnJlZWRpbmcgc3RvY2sgdGhhdCB3aWxsIHJlc3VsdCBpbiBoaWdoIGdyb3d0aCByYXRlLCBidXQgbG93ZXIgZWdnIGxheWluZyBjYXBhYmlsaXR5Pw==[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|952fab5319b34″ question_number=”83″] A team of biologists has started a project to clone the rare blue lobster through somatic cell nuclear transfer. The blue lobster is a variety of the more common purple lobster. The difference in phenotype has been traced to a genetic mutation that results in a blue exoskeleton.

For somatic cell nuclear transfer to be successful, the best choice for a donor cell will be a(n)

[c]IGhhcGxvaWQgY2VsbC4=[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IGFuIHVuZGlmZmVyZW50aWF0ZWQgc3Blcm0gY2VsbC4=[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IGludGVzdGlu YWwgY2VsbC4=[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gSW50ZXN0aW5hbCBjZWxscyBhcmUgZGlwbG9pZCwgYW5kIGNvdWxkIGJlIHVzZWQgYXMgYSBzb3VyY2Ugb2YgZ2VuZXRpYyBtYXRlcmlhbCBmb3IgY2xvbmluZy4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|9520f8c80a734″ question_number=”84″] If you wanted to clone a dog, the least promising tissue to serve as donor cells would be the

[c]IHRlc3 Rlcw==[Qq]

[f]IENvcnJlY3QuIENlbGxzIGluIHRoZSB0ZXN0ZXMgd2lsbCBiZSBoYXBsb2lkLCBhbmQgeW91JiM4MjE3O2xsIG5lZWQgYSBkaXBsb2lkIGNlbGwgdG8gcHJvdmlkZSB0aGUgZ2VuZXRpYyBtYXRlcmlhbCBmb3IgYSBuZXdseSBjbG9uZWQgb3JnYW5pc20u[Qq]

[c]IHJldGluYQ==[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IHN0b21hY2g=[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IGJyYWlu[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IGludGVzdGluZXM=[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”DNA|RNA|Protein” dataset_id=”144Qs|95139583ab734″ question_number=”85″] A team of biologists has started a project to clone the rare blue lobster through somatic cell nuclear transfer. The blue lobster is a variety of the more common purple lobster. The difference in phenotype has been traced to a genetic mutation that results in a blue exoskeleton.

The team has discovered that rate of production of viable clones is highest when intestinal cells are used. The least likely reason for this would be the difference in

[c]IGhpc3RvbmUgYWNldHlsYXRpb24=[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IE NhKys=IGxldmVs[Qq]

[f]IFRlcnJpZmljLiBFdmVyeSBvdGhlciBjaG9pY2UgaXMgY29ubmVjdGVkIGVpdGhlciB3aXRoIEROQSBwYWNrYWdpbmcgb3Igd2l0aCBjb250cm9sIG9yIGdlbmUgZXhwcmVzc2lvbiwgYWxsIG9mIHdoaWNoIGNvdWxkIGFmZmVjdCBob3cgZ2VuZXMgYXJlIGV4cHJlc3NlZCBpbiBhIGRldmVsb3BpbmcgZW1icnlvLCB3aGljaCBjb3VsZCBpbiB0dXJuIGFmZmVjdCB0aGUgdmlhYmlsaXR5IG9mIHRob3NlIGVtYnJ5b3MuIENhKys=IGxldmVscyBzZWVtIGxpa2UgdGhlIGZhY3RvciB0aGF0IHdvdWxkIGhhdmUgdGhlIGxlYXN0IGltcGFjdC4=[Qq]

[c]IEROQSBtZXRoeWxhdGlvbg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBETkEgbWV0aHlsYXRpb24gaXMgb25lIHdheSB0aGF0IEROQSBleHByZXNzaW9uIGlzIGNvbnRyb2xsZWQgaW4gZXVrYXJ5b3RpYyBvcmdhbmlzbXMsIHdpdGggbWV0aHlsIGdyb3VwcyBhZGRlZCB0byBjeXRvc2luZSBiYXNlcyBpbiBETkEgc2VxdWVuY2VzIHRoYXQsIGluIHBhcnRpY3VsYXIgdGlzc3VlcywgYXJlIG5vdCBleHByZXNzZWQuwqAgTGV2ZWxzIG9mIEROQSBtZXRoeWxhdGlvbiBpbiBkb25vciBjZWxscyBjb3VsZCBhZmZlY3QgdGhlIHZpYWJpbGl0eSBvZiBjbG9uZWQgb3JnYW5pc21zIGNyZWF0ZWQgZnJvbSB0aGVzZSBjZWxscywgYXMgY2VydGFpbiBnZW5lcyBtaWdodCBub3QgZXhwcmVzcyB0aGVtc2VsdmVzIGF0IHRoZSByaWdodCBsZXZlbCBmb3IgcHJvcGVyIGVtYnJ5b25pYyBkZXZlbG9wbWVudC4gTmV4dCB0aW1lIHlvdSBzZWUgdGhpcyBxdWVzdGlvbiwgc2VlIGlmIHlvdSBjYW4gZmluZCBzb21ldGhpbmcgdGhhdCBkb2VzbiYjODIxNzt0IHNlZW0gdG8gYmUgdGlnaHRseSBjb25uZWN0ZWQgd2l0aCBETkEgc3RydWN0dXJlLg==[Qq]

[c]IGNocm9tYXRpbiBzdHJ1Y3R1cmU=[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”DNA|RNA|Protein” dataset_id=”144Qs|9505e7bdcff34″ question_number=”86″] A team of biologists has started a project to clone the rare blue lobster through somatic cell nuclear transfer. The blue lobster is a variety of the more common purple lobster. The difference in phenotype has been traced to a genetic mutation that results in a blue exoskeleton.

In the new population of blue lobster clones that the biologists have created, many have behavioral defects. From the list below, the most likely reason for this would be

[c]IGNvbXBsZXRlIHJlcHJvZ3JhbW1pbmcgb2YgdGhlIEROQSBpbiB0aGUgbmV3bHkgZm9ybWVkIHp5Z290ZSB0byBhbiBlbWJyeW9uaWMgc3RhdGUgYWZ0ZXIgbnVjbGVhciB0cmFuc2Zlci4=[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IG1pdG9jaG9uZHJpYWwgaW5jb21wYXRpYmlsaXR5IHdpdGhpbiB0aGUgZWdn[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IGRvbm9yIGNlbGwgdGVsb21lcmVz IHRoYXQgd2VyZSB0b28gc2hvcnQ=[Qq]

[f]IEdyZWF0IGpvYi4gQXMgYSBtdWx0aWNlbGx1bGFyIGV1a2FyeW90aWMgb3JnYW5pc20gYWdlcywgdGhlIHRlbG9tZXJlcyBpbiBpdHMgY2VsbCBzaG9ydGVuLiBBdCBhIGNlcnRhaW4gcG9pbnQsIHRoZSB0ZWxvbWVyZXMgYXJlIGdvbmUsIGFuZCBmdXJ0aGVyIGNlbGwgZGl2aXNpb24gcmVzdWx0cyBpbiBsb3NzIG9mIGdlbmV0aWMgRE5BLiBUaGlzIGlzIGEga25vd24gcHJvYmxlbSBpbiBjbG9uZWQgb3JnYW5pc21zLCBhbmQgY291bGQgYWNjb3VudCBmb3IgdGhlIGJlaGF2aW9yYWwgcHJvYmxlbXMgZGVzY3JpYmVkIGFib3ZlLg==[Qq]

[c]IGFjdGluIHBvbHltZXJpemF0aW9uIGxldmVscyBpbiB0aGUgZWdnIHRoYXQgd2VyZSB0b28gaGlnaA==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBXaGlsZSBhY3RpbiBwb2x5bWVyaXphdGlvbiBsZXZlbHMgdGhhdCB3ZXJlIHRvbyBoaWdoIGNvdWxkIGNhdXNlIHByb2JsZW1zIChvciBiZSBhIHN5bXB0b20gb2YgYSBwcm9ibGVtKSwgdGhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIG1vcmUgb2J2aW91cyBjaG9pY2UgdGhhdCBjb3VsZCBsZWFkIHRvIGdlbmV0aWMgcHJvYmxlbXMgZHVyaW5nIGRldmVsb3BtZW50Lg==[Qq]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”DNA|RNA|Protein” dataset_id=”144Qs|94f59b6a93f34″ question_number=”87″] The diagram below represents a sequence from two DNA molecules from the same species of bacteria. In the experiment’s protocol, the bacteria were first grown for several generations in a medium containing non-radioactive nitrogen. Subsequently, a fraction of the bacteria were transferred to a medium containing radioactive nitrogen.

Which of the diagrams below best represents the DNA molecules produced after the bacteria were transferred to radioactive nitrogen and then allowed to proceed through one replication cycle.

[c]IEE=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBNb2RlbCBBIHNob3dzIHRoZSB0d28gZGF1Z2h0ZXIgc3RyYW5kcyB0aGF0IHJlc3VsdCBmcm9tIEROQSByZXBsaWNhdGlvbiBhcyBjb25zaXN0aW5nIG9mIG9uZSBkb3VibGUgc3RyYW5kZWQgZGF1Z2h0ZXIgY29uc2lzdGluZyBlbnRpcmVseSBvZiBETkEgbWFkZSBmcm9tIA==MTQ=TiAodGhlIGxpZ2h0ZXIgb25lIG9uIHRoZSBsZWZ0KSwgYW5kIHRoZSBvdGhlciBvbmUgZW50aXJlbHkgbWFkZSBvZiA=MTU=TiAodGhlIGRhcmtlciBvbmUgb24gdGhlIHJpZ2h0KS4gQnV0IHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBub3QgaG93IEROQSByZXBsaWNhdGlvbiB3b3Jrcy4gV2hlbiBETkEgcmVwbGljYXRlcyBpdHNlbGYsIHRoZSBETkEgJiM4MjIwO3VuemlwcyYjODIyMTsgYW5kIGVhY2ggc3RyYW5kIHN1YnNlcXVlbnRseSBhY3RzIGFzIGEgdGVtcGxhdGUgZm9yIGZvcm1hdGlvbiBvZiBhIG5ldyBjb21wbGVtZW50YXJ5IHN0cmFuZC4gVGhlIHJlc3VsdGluZyBkYXVnaHRlciBzdHJhbmRzIHdpbGwgZWFjaCBiZSBoYWxmIG9sZCBhbmQgaGFsZiBuZXcuIFNlZSBpZiB5b3UgY2FuIGZpZ3VyZSBvdXQgd2hpY2ggZGlhZ3JhbSByZXByZXNlbnRzIHRoaXMgY29ycmVjdCBtb2RlbC4=[Qq]

[c]IEI=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBNb2RlbCBCIHNob3dzIHRoZSB0d28gZGF1Z2h0ZXIgc3RyYW5kcyB0aGF0IHJlc3VsdCBmcm9tIEROQSByZXBsaWNhdGlvbiBhcyBjb25zaXN0aW5nIGVudGlyZWx5IG9mIEROQSBtYWRlIGZyb20gMTU=Ti4gQnV0IHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBub3QgaG93IEROQSByZXBsaWNhdGlvbiB3b3Jrcy4gV2hlbiBETkEgcmVwbGljYXRlcyBpdHNlbGYsIHRoZSBETkEgJiM4MjIwO3VuemlwcyYjODIyMTsgYW5kIGVhY2ggc3RyYW5kIHN1YnNlcXVlbnRseSBhY3RzIGFzIGEgdGVtcGxhdGUgZm9yIGZvcm1hdGlvbiBvZiBhIG5ldyBjb21wbGVtZW50YXJ5IHN0cmFuZC4gVGhlIHJlc3VsdGluZyBkYXVnaHRlciBzdHJhbmRzIHdpbGwgZWFjaCBiZSBoYWxmIG9sZCBhbmQgaGFsZiBuZXcuIFNlZSBpZiB5b3UgY2FuIGZpZ3VyZSBvdXQgd2hpY2ggZGlhZ3JhbSByZXByZXNlbnRzIHRoaXMgY29ycmVjdCBtb2RlbC4=[Qq]

[c]IEM=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBNb2RlbCBDIGhhcyB0d28ga2V5IGZlYXR1cmVzOiAxKSBJdCBzaG93cyB0aGUgdHdvIGRhdWdodGVyIHN0cmFuZHMgdGhhdCByZXN1bHQgZnJvbSBETkEgcmVwbGljYXRpb24gYXMgY29uc2lzdGluZyBvZiBhIG1peHR1cmUgb2YgRE5BIG1hZGUgZnJvbSA=MTU=TiBhbmTCoA==MTQ=TiwgYW5kIGl0IHNob3dzIGVhY2ggaW5kaXZpZHVhbCBzdHJhbmQgY29uc2lzdGluZyBvZiBib3RowqA=[Qq]15N and 14N. But that’s not how DNA replication works. When DNA replicates itself, the DNA “unzips” and each strand subsequently acts as a template for formation of a new complementary strand. The resulting daughter strands will each be half old and half new. See if you can figure out which diagram represents this correct model.

[c]IE Q=[Qq]

[f]IEZhYnVsb3VzLiBNb2RlbCBEIGNvcnJlY3RseSByZXByZXNlbnRzIHdoYXQgaGFwcGVucyBkdXJpbmcgRE5BIHJlcGxpY2F0aW9uLCB3aGljaCBlYWNoIGRhdWdodGVyIHN0cmFuZCBjb25zaXN0aW5nIG9mIG9uZSBvZiB0aGUgb3JpZ2luYWwgcGFyZW50IHN0cmFuZHMgYW5kIG9uZSBuZXcgY29tcGxlbWVudGFyeSBzdHJhbmQu[Qq]

 

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”DNA|RNA|Protein” dataset_id=”144Qs|94e812e576b34″ question_number=”88″] The diagram below represents a sequence from two DNA molecules from the same species of bacteria. In the experiment’s protocol, the bacteria were first grown for several generations in a medium containing non-radioactive nitrogen. Subsequently, a fraction of the bacteria were transferred to a medium containing radioactive nitrogen.

One of the diagrams below represents the DNA molecules that would produced after the bacteria were transferred to radioactive nitrogen and then allowed to proceed through one replication cycle.

This model is called

[c]IGNvbnNlcnZhdGl2ZQ==[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IGRpc3BlcnNpdmU=[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IHNlbWktY29u c2VydmF0aXZl[Qq]

[f]IE5pY2Ugam9iISBETkEgcmVwbGljYXRpb24gaXMgYmVzdCBkZXNjcmliZWQgYXMgc2VtaS1jb25zZXJ2YXRpdmUsIGFuZCBpdCYjODIxNztzIHNob3duIGJ5IG1vZGVsIEQu[Qq]

[c]IGludGVyZHVwbGljYXRpdmU=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLsKgV2hlbiBETkEgcmVwbGljYXRlcyBpdHNlbGYsIHRoZSBETkEgJiM4MjIwO3VuemlwcyYjODIyMTsgYW5kIGVhY2ggc3RyYW5kIHN1YnNlcXVlbnRseSBhY3RzIGFzIGEgdGVtcGxhdGUgZm9yIGZvcm1hdGlvbiBvZiBhIG5ldyBjb21wbGVtZW50YXJ5IHN0cmFuZC4gVGhlIHJlc3VsdGluZyBkYXVnaHRlciBzdHJhbmRzIHdpbGwgZWFjaCBiZSBoYWxmIG9sZCBhbmQgaGFsZiBuZXcgKHdpdGggb25lIHN0cmFuZCBpbiBlYWNoIG1vbGVjdWxlIGVudGlyZWx5IG9sZCwgYW5kIG9uZSBzdHJhbmQgZW50aXJlbHkgbmV3KS4gV2hhdCYjODIxNztzIGEgbG9naWNhbCBuYW1lIGZvciB0aGlzIG1vZGVsIG9mIHJlcGxpY2F0aW9uPw==[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Evolution” dataset_id=”144Qs|94da8a6059734″ question_number=”89″] The diagram below shows the results of an experiment in artificial selection with the fruit fly
Drosophila melanogaster. During the first 25 generations the smallest flies were selected to produce the next generation. After generation 25, the selection was reversed: from generations 25 through 35 only the largest flies were chosen to breed the next generation.

In relationship to alleles coding for body size, the experimental results suggest that

[c]IGFmdGVyIDI1IGdlbmVyYXRpb25zIHRoZXJlIHdhcyBsaXR0bGUgZ2 VuZXRpYyB2YXJpYXRpb24gbGVmdCBpbiB0aGUgcG9wdWxhdGlvbg==[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gRnJvbSB0aGUgY2hvaWNlcyBnaXZlbiwgaXQgc2VlbXMgbW9zdCByZWFzb25hYmxlIHRoYXQgMjUgZ2VuZXJhdGlvbnMgb2Ygc2VsZWN0aW9uIGZvciBzbWFsbGVyIHNpemUgaGFkIGZpeGVkIHRoZSBhbGxlbGVzIGZvciBib2R5IHNpemUgaW4gdGhlIHBvcHVsYXRpb24sIG1ha2luZyBpdCBpbXBvc3NpYmxlIHRvIGVmZmVjdGl2ZWx5IHNlbGVjdCBmb3IgbGFyZ2VyIHNpemUgYWZ0ZXIgZ2VuZXJhdGlvbiAyNS4=[Qq]

[c]IGZvciB0aGUgZmlyc3QgMjUgZ2VuZXJhdGlvbnMgdGhlcmUgd2FzIG5vIGdlbmV0aWMgdmFyaWF0aW9uIHdpdGhpbiB0aGUgcG9wdWxhdGlvbi4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgZHJvcCBpbiBib2R5IHNpemUgYmV0d2VlbiBnZW5lcmF0aW9ucyAwIGFuZCAyNSBpbmRpY2F0ZSB0aGF0IHRoZXJlIHdhcyBnZW5ldGljIHZhcmlhdGlvbiwgYW5kIHRoYXQgaXQgY291bGQgYmUgc2VsZWN0ZWQgZm9yLiBOb3cgdGhpbmsgYWJvdXQgd2h5IHRoZSBib2R5IHNpemUgcmVtYWlucyBjb25zdGFudCBhZnRlciBnZW5lcmF0aW9uIDI1Lg==[Qq]

[c]IHNlbGVjdGlvbiBiZXR3ZWVuIGdlbmVyYXRpb25zIDI1IGFuZCAzNSBoYWQgYSBzaWduaWZpY2FudCBlZmZlY3Qgb24gYXZlcmFnZSBib2R5IHNpemUu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUYWtlIGEgZ29vZCBsb29rIGF0IHRoZSBncmFwaC4gVGhlIGxpbmUgaXMgZmxhdCBhZnRlciBnZW5lcmF0aW9uIDI1LCBpbmRpY2F0aW5nIHRoYXQgc2VsZWN0aW9uIGZvciBsYXJnZSBib2R5IHNpemUgaGFkIG5vIGVmZmVjdCBvbiBzZWxlY3Rpb24u[Qq]

[c]IGlmIHNlbGVjdGlvbiBmb3Igc21hbGwgYm9keSBzaXplIGNvbnRpbnVlZCBhZnRlciBnZW5lcmF0aW9uIDI1LCBhdmVyYWdlIGJvZHkgc2l6ZSB3b3VsZCBjb250aW51ZSB0byBmYWxsLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGF0IHNlZW1zIHVubGlrZWx5LCBpZiBvbmx5IGJlY2F1c2Ugc2VsZWN0aW9uIGZvciBzbWFsbCBib2R5IHNpemUgc2VlbXMgdG8gaGF2ZSBsaXR0bGUgb3Igbm8gZWZmZWN0IGJldHdlZW4gZ2VuZXJhdGlvbiAyMCBhbmQgMjUu[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Mitosis|Meiosis|Genetics” dataset_id=”144Qs|94ccdc9a7df34″ question_number=”90″] In a group of organisms, individuals are genetically identical at a particular single gene locus. However, these individuals show a variety of phenotypes for the trait. The most likely explanation for the variation in phenotypes for this trait is

[c]IGNvZG9taW5hbnQgYWxsZWxlcy4=[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IHBvbHlnZW5pYyBpbmhlcml0YW5jZSBmb3IgdGhlIHRyYWl0IHVuZGVyIGludmVzdGlnYXRpb24u[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IGVudmlyb25tZW50YWwgaW5mbHVlbmNlcyBjcmVh dGluZyBwaGVub3R5cGljIGRpZmZlcmVuY2VzLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5pY2UhIElmIGluZGl2aWR1YWxzIGFyZSBnZW5ldGljYWxseSBpZGVudGljYWwsIHRoZW4gdGhlIG1vc3Qgc3RyYWlnaHRmb3J3YXJkIGV4cGxhbmF0aW9uIGZvciB0aGUgZGlmZmVyZW5jZSB3b3VsZCBiZSBlbnZpcm9ubWVudGFsIGluZmx1ZW5jZXMuIFNhbWUgc2VlZCwgZGlmZmVyZW50IHNvaWwu[Qq]

[c]IG11bHRpcGxlIGFsbGVsZXMgYXQgdGhlIGdlbmUgbG9jdXMgd2l0aGluIHRoZSBnZW5lIHBvb2wu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBJbiB0aGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uLCBpbmRpdmlkdWFscyBhcmUgZGVzY3JpYmVkIGFzIGJlaW5nIGlkZW50aWNhbCBhIGEgcGFydGljdWxhciBnZW5lIGxvY3VzLiBFdmVuIGlmIHRoZXJlIHdlcmUgbXVsdGlwbGUgYWxsZWxlcyBmb3IgdGhpcyBnZW5lLCBpdCB3b3VsZG4mIzgyMTc7dCBleHBsYWluIHRoZWlyIHBoZW5vdHlwaWMgdmFyaWF0aW9uIChiZWNhdXNlIHRoZXkgYWxsIGhhdmUgdGhlIHNhbWUgYWxsZWxlKS7CoE5leHQgdGltZSB5b3Ugc2VlIHRoaXMsIGFzayB5b3Vyc2VsZiB0aGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uOsKgV2hhdCBjb3VsZCBwcm9kdWNlIHBoZW5vdHlwaWMgdmFyaWF0aW9uIGluIGdlbmV0aWNhbGx5IGlkZW50aWNhbCBvcmdhbmlzbXM/[Qq]

 

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”DNA|RNA|Protein” dataset_id=”144Qs|94bee45325f34″ question_number=”91″] A lysogenic virus infects a particular cell type. and integrates its genome into a site that contains a proto-oncogene. This transforms the cell and increases the level of a protein X. Protein X, in turn, increases cellular proliferation.

A compound P is known to increase the level of tumor suppressor proteins in that cell type. A second compound, Q helps in stimulating protein Z. Protein Z has been shown to be capable of binding to X rendering it inactive. Which one of the following graphs correctly represents the mode of action of P and Q?

[c]IEE=[Qq]

[f]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

Cg==

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

Cg==

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[c]IEI=[Qq]

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Cg==

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[c]IE M=[Qq]

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[c]IEQ=[Qq]

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Cg==

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Cg==

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[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”DNA|RNA|Protein” dataset_id=”144Qs|94af77845f734″ question_number=”92″] Two cloning vectors used in genetic engineering are bacterial viruses and plasmids. Which of
the following statements about viruses and plasmids is false?

[c]IFBsYXNtaWRzIHVzZSB0aGUgdHJhbnNsYXRpb24gbWFjaGluZXJ5IG9mIHRoZSBjZWxsLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBSZW1lbWJlciB0aGF0IHlvdSYjODIxNztyZSBsb29raW5nIGZvciBhIGZhbHNlIHN0YXRlbWVudCwgYW5kIHRoaXMgb25lIGlzIHRydWUuIE9uY2UgeW91IGludHJvZHVjZSBhIHBsYXNtaWQgaW50byBhIGhvc3QgY2VsbCwgaXQgY2FuIGJlIHJlcGxpY2F0ZWQsIHRyYW5zY3JpYmVkLCBhbmQgdHJhbnNsYXRlZCB1c2luZyB0aGUgaG9zdCBjZWxsJiM4MjE3O3MgbW9sZWN1bGFyIG1hY2hpbmVyeS4gUmVtZW1iZXIgdGhhdCwgYW5kIG5leHQgdGltZSBjaG9vc2UgYW5vdGhlciBhbnN3ZXIu[Qq]

[c]IFZpcnVzZXMgaGF2ZSBhIHByb3RlaW4gY2Fwc2lkLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLlJlbWVtYmVyIHRoYXQgeW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIGxvb2tpbmcgZm9yIGEgZmFsc2Ugc3RhdGVtZW50LCBhbmQgdGhpcyBvbmUgaXMgdHJ1ZS4gQSB0eXBpY2FsIHZpcnVzIGhhcyBhIG51Y2xlaWMgYWNpZCBjb3JlIChjb21wb3NlZCBvZiBETkEgb3IgUk5BKSBzdXJyb3VuZGVkIGJ5IGEgcHJvdGVpbiBjb2F0IChvciBjYXBzaWQpLiBSZW1lbWJlciB0aGF0LCBhbmQgbmV4dCB0aW1lIGNob29zZSBhbm90aGVyIGFuc3dlci4=[Qq]

[c]IFZpcnVzZXMgY2FuIHJlcGxpY2F0ZSBpbiB0aG UgYWJzZW5jZSBvZiBhIGNlbGx1bGFyIGhvc3Qu[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gWW91JiM4MjE3O3ZlIG9idmlvdXNseSByZW1lbWJlcmVkIHRoYXQgdmlydXNlcyBhcmUgb2JsaWdhdGUgaW50cmFjZWxsdWxhciBwYXJhc2l0ZXM=LCB0aGF0IGRlcGVuZCBvbiB0aGVpciBob3N0IGluIG9yZGVyIHRvIHJlcGxpY2F0ZS4=[Qq]

[c]IFBsYXNtaWRzIGNhcnJ5IGdlbmVzLg==[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IFBsYXNtaWRzIGhhdmUgcmVzdHJpY3Rpb24gc2l0ZXMu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLsKgUmVtZW1iZXIgdGhhdCB5b3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgbG9va2luZyBmb3IgYSBmYWxzZSBzdGF0ZW1lbnQsIGFuZCB0aGlzIG9uZSBpcyB0cnVlLiBQbGFzbWlkcyBkbyBoYXZlIHJlc3RyaWN0aW9uIHNpdGVzIChzaXRlcyB3aGVyZSB0aGV5IGNhbiBiZSBjdXQgb3BlbiBieSBlbnp5bWVzKS4gVGhhdCYjODIxNztzIGhvdyBwbGFzbWlkcyBjYW4gYmUgZW5naW5lZXJlZCB0byBjb21iaW5lIHdpdGggb3RoZXIgRE5BLCBtYWtpbmcgcmVjb21iaW5hbnQgRE5BIHRlY2hub2xvZ3kgcG9zc2libGUuIFJlbWVtYmVyIHRoYXQgbmV4dCB0aW1lLCBhbmQgY2hvb3NlIGFub3RoZXIgYW5zd2VyLg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Cells|Membranes” dataset_id=”144Qs|94a00ab598f34″ question_number=”93″] Researchers are investigating two steroid hormone receptors that they designate X and Y. Both receptors contain a ligand binding domain and a DNA binding domain. The researchers genetically engineer a third, hybrid receptor. This receptor, designated “H,” contains the ligand binding
domain of X and DNA binding domain of Y.

The researchers next isolate three groups of cells, each of which over-expresses one of the three receptors: X, Y or H. Each group of cells was then treated separately either with hormone X or with hormone Y.

Assuming that there is no cross-reactivity, which one of the following graphs best represent the receptor-ligand binding in each case?

[c]IEE=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uIGFzc3VtZXMgdGhhdCB5b3Uga25vdyB0aGF0IGEgbGlnYW5kIGlzIHNvbWV0aGluZyB0aGF0IGJpbmRzIHdpdGggYSByZWNlcHRvci4gSG9ybW9uZSBYLCBmb3IgZXhhbXBsZSwgaXMgdGhlIGxpZ2FuZCB0aGF0IGJpbmRzIHdpdGggcmVjZXB0b3IgWC4=

Cg==

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

Cg==

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[Qq]

Here’s the hint: you’re looking for a graph where cells X and H will have about the same vigorous response to hormone X, and where cell Y will be the only cell vigorously responding to hormone Y.

[c]IEI=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uIGFzc3VtZXMgdGhhdCB5b3Uga25vdyB0aGF0IGEgbGlnYW5kIGlzIHNvbWV0aGluZyB0aGF0IGJpbmRzIHdpdGggYSByZWNlcHRvci4gSG9ybW9uZSBYLCBmb3IgZXhhbXBsZSwgaXMgdGhlIGxpZ2FuZCB0aGF0IGJpbmRzIHdpdGggcmVjZXB0b3IgWC4=

Cg==

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

Cg==

SWYgeW91JiM4MjE3O3ZlIGdvdCB0aGUgaWRlYSwgdGFrZSBhIGxvb2sgYXQgdGhlIGdyYXBocyBhbmQgZmlndXJlIG91dCB3aGljaCBvbmUgbWFrZXMgc2Vuc2UuIElmIG5vdCwgcmVhZCBiZWxvdyBmb3IgYW5vdGhlciBoaW50JiM4MjMwOw==

[Qq]

Here’s the hint: you’re looking for a graph where cells X and H will have about the same vigorous response to hormone X, and where cell Y will be the only cell vigorously responding to hormone Y.

[c]IE M=[Qq]

[f]IE5pY2Ugam9iISBZb3UgZ2V0IGhpZ2ggYmFycyBmb3IgcmVhZGluZyBiYXIgZ3JhcGhzISBHcmFwaCBDIGlzIHNob3dpbmcgY2VsbHMgd2l0aCB0aGUgcmVjZXB0b3IgZm9yIFggYW5kIEggcmVzcG9uZGluZyB0byBob3Jtb25lIFgsIGFuZCBjZWxscyB3aXRoIHRoZSByZWNlcHRvciBmb3IgWSByZXNwb25kaW5nIHRvIGhvcm1vbmUgWS4=[Qq]

[c]IEQ=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uIGFzc3VtZXMgdGhhdCB5b3Uga25vdyB0aGF0IGEgbGlnYW5kIGlzIHNvbWV0aGluZyB0aGF0IGJpbmRzIHdpdGggYSByZWNlcHRvci4gSG9ybW9uZSBYLCBmb3IgZXhhbXBsZSwgaXMgdGhlIGxpZ2FuZCB0aGF0IGJpbmRzIHdpdGggcmVjZXB0b3IgWC4=

Cg==

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

Cg==

SWYgeW91JiM4MjE3O3ZlIGdvdCB0aGUgaWRlYSwgdGFrZSBhIGxvb2sgYXQgdGhlIGdyYXBocyBhbmQgZmlndXJlIG91dCB3aGljaCBvbmUgbWFrZXMgc2Vuc2UuIElmIG5vdCwgcmVhZCBiZWxvdyBmb3IgYW5vdGhlciBoaW50JiM4MjMwOw==

[Qq]

Here’s the hint: you’re looking for a graph where cells X and H will have about the same vigorous response to hormone X, and where cell Y will be the only cell vigorously responding to hormone Y.

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Animal_Systems” dataset_id=”144Qs|94917d6b47f34″ question_number=”94″] The image below shows a sensory neuron and its associated receptor cells.

The axon is at

[c]IEE=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7dmUgY2hvc2VuIGEgZGVuZHJpdGUsIHdoaWNoIGlzIHJlc3BvbnNpYmxlIGZvciBpbnB1dC4gVGhlIGF4b24mIzgyMTc7cyBmdW5jdGlvbiBpcyBvdXRwdXQuIFRha2UgYSBnb29kIGxvb2sgYXQgdGhlIGRpYWdyYW0sIGFuZCBzZWUgaWYgeW91IGNhbiBmaW5kIHNvbWV0aGluZyBhbmFsb2dvdXMgdG8gYSB3aXJlIHNlbmRpbmcgbWVzc2FnZXMgYXdheSBmcm9tIHRoZSBjZWxsIGJvZHkgKHdoaWNoIGlzIGF0IEMuKQ==[Qq]

[c]IEI=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBCIGlzIGJyaW5naW5nIGluZm9ybWF0aW9uIHRvIHRoZSBjZWxsIGJvZHkgKHNob3duIGF0IEMpLsKgVGhlIGF4b24mIzgyMTc7cyBmdW5jdGlvbiBpcyBvdXRwdXQuIFRha2UgYSBnb29kIGxvb2sgYXQgdGhlIGRpYWdyYW0sIGFuZCBzZWUgaWYgeW91IGNhbiBmaW5kIHNvbWV0aGluZyBhbmFsb2dvdXMgdG8gYSB3aXJlIHNlbmRpbmcgbWVzc2FnZXMgYXdheSBmcm9tIHRoZSBjZWxsIGJvZHku[Qq]

[c]IEM=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBDIGlzIHRoZSBjZWxsIGJvZHksIHdoaWNoIGlzIHJlc3BvbnNpYmxlIGZvciBpbnRlZ3JhdGluZyBpbmNvbWluZyBtZXNzYWdlcywgYW5kICYjODIyMDtkZWNpZGluZyYjODIyMTsgb24gdGhlIGNlbGwmIzgyMTc7cyBvdXRwdXQuIFRoYXQgb3V0cHV0IHdpbGwgZmxvdyB0aHJvdWdoIHRoZSBheG9uLsKgVGFrZSBhIGdvb2QgbG9vayBhdCB0aGUgZGlhZ3JhbSwgYW5kIHNlZSBpZiB5b3UgY2FuIGZpbmQgc29tZXRoaW5nIGFuYWxvZ291cyB0byBhIHdpcmUgc2VuZGluZyBtZXNzYWdlcyBhd2F5IGZyb20gdGhlIGNlbGwgYm9keS4=[Qq]

[c]IE Q=[Qq]

[f]IENvcnJlY3QhIEQgaXMgdGhlIGF4b24u[Qq]

[c]IEU=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLCBidXQgeW91IHdlcmUgY2xvc2UuIEUgaXMgYSBTY2h3YW5uIGNlbGwgbWFraW5nIHVwIHRoZSBteWVsaW4gc2hlYXRoLiBUaGlzIG15ZWxpbiBzaGVhdGggaXMgYSBraW5kIG9mIGluc3VsYXRpb24gdGhhdCBtYWtlcyBuZXJ2ZSBpbXB1bHNlIHRyYW5zbWlzc2lvbiBtdWNoIGZhc3Rlci4gVGhlIGF4b24gaXMgb2Z0ZW4gd3JhcHBlZCBieSB0aGUgbXllbGluIHNoZWF0aCwgYW5kIGl0JiM4MjE3O3MgcmVzcG9uc2libGUgZm9yIG91dHB1dC4gU28gdGFrZSBhIGdvb2QgbG9vayBhdCB0aGUgZGlhZ3JhbSwgYW5kIGZpbmQgdGhlIG9ubHkgb3RoZXIgcGFydCB0aGF0IGNvdWxkIGJlIHRoZSBheG9uLg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Animal_Systems” dataset_id=”144Qs|9483cfa56c734″ question_number=”95″] The image below shows a sensory neuron and its associated receptor cells.

The myelin sheath is at

[c]IEE=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7dmUgY2hvc2VuIGEgZGVuZHJpdGUsIHdoaWNoIGlzIHJlc3BvbnNpYmxlIGZvciBpbnB1dC4gVGhlIG15ZWxpbiBzaGVhdGggaXMgYSBraW5kIG9mIGluc3VsYXRpb24gdGhhdCB3cmFwcyBhcm91bmQgdGhlIG5ldXJvbiYjODIxNztzIGF4b24sIHRoZSBsb25nIHByb2Nlc3MgdGhhdCYjODIxNztzIHJlc3BvbnNpYmxlIGZvciBvdXRwdXQgb2YgaW5mb3JtYXRpb24gYXdheSBmcm9tIHRoZSBjZWxsIGJvZHku[Qq]

[c]IEM=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLkMgaXMgdGhlIGNlbGwgYm9keSwgd2hpY2ggaXMgcmVzcG9uc2libGUgZm9yIGludGVncmF0aW5nIGluY29taW5nIG1lc3NhZ2VzLCBhbmQgJiM4MjIwO2RlY2lkaW5nJiM4MjIxOyBvbiB0aGUgY2VsbCYjODIxNztzIG91dHB1dC7CoFRoZSBteWVsaW4gc2hlYXRoIGlzIGEga2luZCBvZiBpbnN1bGF0aW9uIHRoYXQgd3JhcHMgYXJvdW5kIHRoZSBuZXVyb24mIzgyMTc7cyBheG9uLCB0aGUgbG9uZyBwcm9jZXNzIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyByZXNwb25zaWJsZSBmb3Igb3V0cHV0IG9mIGluZm9ybWF0aW9uIGF3YXkgZnJvbSB0aGUgY2VsbCBib2R5Lg==[Qq]

[c]IEQ=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBEIGlzIHRoZSBheG9uLCB0aGUgbG9uZyBwcm9jZXNzIHJlc3BvbnNpYmxlIGZvciBvdXRwdXQuwqBUaGUgbXllbGluIHNoZWF0aCBpcyBhIGtpbmQgb2YgaW5zdWxhdGlvbiB0aGF0IHdyYXBzIGFyb3VuZCB0aGUgbmV1cm9uJiM4MjE3O3MgYXhvbi4=[Qq]

[c]IE U=[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCEgWW91JiM4MjE3O3ZlIGNvcnJlY3RseSBpZGVudGlmaWVkIHRoZSBteWVsaW4gc2hlYXRoLg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Animal_Systems” dataset_id=”144Qs|947647204f334″ question_number=”96″] The image below shows a sensory neuron and its associated receptor cells.

The dendrites are at

[c]IE E=[Qq]

[f]IE5pY2UgSm9iLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7dmUgY29ycmVjdGx5IGlkZW50aWZpZWQgdGhlIGRlbmRyaXRlcy4=[Qq]

[c]IEM=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBDIGlzIHRoZSBjZWxsIGJvZHksIHdoaWNoIGlzIHJlc3BvbnNpYmxlIGZvciBpbnRlZ3JhdGluZyBpbmNvbWluZyBtZXNzYWdlcywgYW5kICYjODIyMDtkZWNpZGluZyYjODIyMTsgb24gdGhlIGNlbGwmIzgyMTc7cyBvdXRwdXQuIFRoZSBkZW5kcml0ZXMgYXJlIHJlc3BvbnNpYmxlIGZvciBpbnB1dDogYnJpbmdpbmcgaW5mb3JtYXRpb24gdG8gdGhlIGNlbGwgYm9keSAod2hpY2ggaXMgYXQgQyku[Qq]

[c]IEQ=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLyBEIGlzIHRoZSBheG9uLCB3aGljaCBpcyByZXNwb25zaWJsZSBmb3Igb3V0cHV0LsKgVGhlIGRlbmRyaXRlcyBhcmUgcmVzcG9uc2libGUgZm9yIGlucHV0OiBicmluZ2luZyBpbmZvcm1hdGlvbiB0byB0aGUgY2VsbCBib2R5ICh3aGljaCBpcyBhdCBDKS4=[Qq]

[c]IEU=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBFIGlzIGEgU2Nod2FubiBjZWxsIG1ha2luZyB1cCB0aGUgbXllbGluIHNoZWF0aC4gVGhpcyBteWVsaW4gc2hlYXRoIGlzIGEga2luZCBvZiBpbnN1bGF0aW9uIHRoYXQgbWFrZXMgbmVydmUgaW1wdWxzZSB0cmFuc21pc3Npb24gbXVjaCBmYXN0ZXIuwqBUaGUgZGVuZHJpdGVzIGFyZSByZXNwb25zaWJsZSBmb3IgaW5wdXQ6IGJyaW5naW5nIGluZm9ybWF0aW9uIHRvIHRoZSBjZWxsIGJvZHkgKHdoaWNoIGlzIGF0IEMpLg==[Qq]

 

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Animal_Systems” dataset_id=”144Qs|9468995a73b34″ question_number=”97″] In the image below, the threshold potential is indicated by

[c]IF c=[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gVGhlIHRocmVzaG9sZCBwb3RlbnRpYWwgaXMgdGhlIGRlcG9sYXJpemF0aW9uIHRoYXQgaXMgc3VmZmljaWVudCB0byBpbml0aWF0ZSBhbiBhY3Rpb24gcG90ZW50aWFsLiBJbiBtb3N0IGNlbGxzLCB0aGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgYmV0d2VlbiAtNTAgYW5kIC01NSBtVi4=[Qq]

[c]IFg=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7dmUgaWRlbnRpZmllZCB0aGUgcmlzaW5nIHBoYXNlIG9mIGFuIGFjdGlvbiBwb3RlbnRpYWwsIGR1cmluZyB3aGljaCB0aGUgbWVtYnJhbmUgY29tcGxldGVseSBkZXBvbGFyaXplcy4gVGhlIHRocmVzaG9sZCBwb3RlbnRpYWwgaXMgdGhlIGRlcG9sYXJpemF0aW9uIHRoYXQgaXMgc3VmZmljaWVudCB0byBpbml0aWF0ZSBhbiBhY3Rpb24gcG90ZW50aWFsLg==[Qq]

[c]IFk=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7dmUgaWRlbnRpZmllZCB0aGUgZmFsbGluZyBwaGFzZSBvZiBhbiBhY3Rpb24gcG90ZW50aWFsLCBkdXJpbmcgd2hpY2ggdGhlIG1lbWJyYW5lIHJlcG9sYXJpemVzLiBUaGUgdGhyZXNob2xkIHBvdGVudGlhbCBpcyB0aGUgZGVwb2xhcml6YXRpb24gdGhhdCBpcyBzdWZmaWNpZW50IHRvIGluaXRpYXRlIGFuIGFjdGlvbiBwb3RlbnRpYWwu[Qq]

[c]IFo=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7dmUgaWRlbnRpZmllZCB0aGUgdW5kZXJzaG9vdCwgdGhlIHBoYXNlIHRoYXQgZm9sbG93cyB0aGUgYWN0aW9uIHBvdGVudGlhbC7CoFRoZSB0aHJlc2hvbGQgcG90ZW50aWFsIGlzIHRoZSBkZXBvbGFyaXphdGlvbiB0aGF0IGlzIHN1ZmZpY2llbnQgdG8gaW5pdGlhdGUgYW4gYWN0aW9uIHBvdGVudGlhbC4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Animal_Systems” dataset_id=”144Qs|945aeb9498334″ question_number=”98″] In the image below, the “undershoot,” or “hyperpolarization,” is indicated by letter

[c]IFc=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBXIGlzIHRoZSB0aHJlc2hvbGQgcG90ZW50aWFsLCB3aGljaCBpcyB0aGUgZGVwb2xhcml6YXRpb24gbmVlZGVkIHRvIGluaXRpYXRlIGFuIGFjdGlvbiBwb3RlbnRpYWwuIFRoZSB1bmRlcnNob290IG9jY3VycyBpbW1lZGlhdGVseSBhZnRlciB0aGUgbWVtYnJhbmUgcmVwb2xhcml6ZXMsIGFuZCBpdCYjODIxNztzIGEgbW9tZW50IHdoZW4gdGhlIG1lbWJyYW5lIGlzIGV2ZW4gbW9yZSBuZWdhdGl2ZWx5IGNoYXJnZWQgdGhhbiBpdCB3YXMgZHVyaW5nIHRoZSByZXN0aW5nIHBvdGVudGlhbC4=[Qq]

[c]IFg=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7dmUgaWRlbnRpZmllZCB0aGUgcmlzaW5nIHBoYXNlIG9mIGFuIGFjdGlvbiBwb3RlbnRpYWwsIGR1cmluZyB3aGljaCB0aGUgbWVtYnJhbmUgY29tcGxldGVseSBkZXBvbGFyaXplcy7CoFRoZSB1bmRlcnNob290IG9jY3VycyBpbW1lZGlhdGVseSBhZnRlciB0aGUgbWVtYnJhbmUgcmVwb2xhcml6ZXMsIGFuZCBpdCYjODIxNztzIGEgbW9tZW50IHdoZW4gdGhlIG1lbWJyYW5lIGlzIGV2ZW4gbW9yZSBuZWdhdGl2ZWx5IGNoYXJnZWQgdGhhbiBpdCB3YXMgZHVyaW5nIHRoZSByZXN0aW5nIHBvdGVudGlhbC4=[Qq]

[c]IFk=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7dmUgaWRlbnRpZmllZCB0aGUgZmFsbGluZyBwaGFzZSBvZiBhbiBhY3Rpb24gcG90ZW50aWFsLCBkdXJpbmcgd2hpY2ggdGhlIG1lbWJyYW5lIHJlcG9sYXJpemVzLlRoZSB1bmRlcnNob290IG9jY3VycyBpbW1lZGlhdGVseSBhZnRlciB0aGUgbWVtYnJhbmUgcmVwb2xhcml6ZXMsIGFuZCBpdCYjODIxNztzIGEgbW9tZW50IHdoZW4gdGhlIG1lbWJyYW5lIGlzIGV2ZW4gbW9yZSBuZWdhdGl2ZWx5IGNoYXJnZWQgdGhhbiBpdCB3YXMgZHVyaW5nIHRoZSByZXN0aW5nIHBvdGVudGlhbC4=[Qq]

[c]IF o=[Qq]

[f]IE5pY2VseSBkb25lISBaIGlzIHRoZSB1bmRlcnNob290LCBhIGh5cGVycG9sYXJpemF0aW9uIHRoYXQgaW1tZWRpYXRlbHkgZm9sbG93cyB0aGUgYWN0aW9uIHBvdGVudGlhbC4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Animal_Systems” dataset_id=”144Qs|944d3dcebcb34″ question_number=”99″] In the image below, the action potential is indicated by

[c]IEE=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAmIzgyMjA7QSYjODIyMTsgcmVwcmVzZW50cyBhIGdyYWRlZCBwb3RlbnRpYWwuIEdyYWRlZCBwb3RlbnRpYWxzIGVpdGhlciBoeXBlcnBvbGFyaXplIG9yIGRlcG9sYXJpemUgdGhlIG1lbWJyYW5lLCBiYXNlZCBvbiB0aGUgc3RyZW5ndGggb2YgdGhlIHN0aW11bHVzLiBUaGUgYWN0aW9uIHBvdGVudGlhbCBpcyBhIG1hc3NpdmUsICYjODIyMDthbGwgb3Igbm9uZSYjODIyMTsgZGVwb2xhcml6YXRpb24u[Qq]

[c]IE I=[Qq]

[f]IENvcnJlY3QuICYjODIyMDtCJiM4MjIxOyByZXByZXNlbnRzIGFuIGFjdGlvbiBwb3RlbnRpYWwu[Qq]

[c]IEM=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAmIzgyMjA7QyYjODIyMTsgcmVwcmVzZW50cyB0aGUgdW5kZXJzaG9vdCzCoCBhIGh5cGVycG9sYXJpemF0aW9uIHRoYXQgaW1tZWRpYXRlbHkgZm9sbG93cyB0aGUgYWN0aW9uIHBvdGVudGlhbC7CoFRoZSBhY3Rpb24gcG90ZW50aWFsIGlzIGEgbWFzc2l2ZSwgJiM4MjIwO2FsbCBvciBub25lJiM4MjIxOyBkZXBvbGFyaXphdGlvbi4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Animal_Systems” dataset_id=”144Qs|943f6ac822f34″ question_number=”100″] In the image below, repolarization is indicated by

[c]IDE=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAxIGlzIHRoZSByZXN0aW5nIHBvdGVudGlhbC4gUmVwb2xhcml6YXRpb24gaXMgd2hlbiB0aGUgbWVtYnJhbmUsIGRlcG9sYXJpemVkIGJ5IHRoZSByaXNpbmcgcGhhc2Ugb2YgdGhlIGFjdGlvbiBwb3RlbnRpYWwsIHJlc3RvcmVzIGl0cyBuZWdhdGl2ZSBjaGFyZ2Uu[Qq]

[c]IDI=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAyIGlzIHRoZSB0aHJlc2hvbGQgcG90ZW50aWFsLsKgUmVwb2xhcml6YXRpb24gaXMgd2hlbiB0aGUgbWVtYnJhbmUsIGRlcG9sYXJpemVkIGJ5IHRoZSByaXNpbmcgcGhhc2Ugb2YgdGhlIGFjdGlvbiBwb3RlbnRpYWwsIHJlc3RvcmVzIGl0cyBuZWdhdGl2ZSBjaGFyZ2Uu[Qq]

[c]IDM=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAzIGlzIHRoZSByaXNpbmcgcGhhc2Ugb2YgdGhlIGFjdGlvbiBwb3RlbnRpYWwsIHdoaWNoIGlzIGEgbWFzc2l2ZSBkZXBvbGFyaXphdGlvbiB0aGF0IHN3aXRjaGVzIHRoZSBjaGFyZ2UgYWNyb3NzIHRoZSBtZW1icmFuZSBmcm9tIG5lZ2F0aXZlIHRvIHBvc2l0aXZlLsKgUmVwb2xhcml6YXRpb24gaXMgd2hlbiB0aGUgbWVtYnJhbmUgcmVzdG9yZXMgaXRzIG5lZ2F0aXZlIGNoYXJnZS4=[Qq]

[c]ID Q=[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gNCBpcyB3aGVuIHRoZSBtZW1icmFuZSBpcyByZXBvbGFyaXppbmcu[Qq]

[c]IDU=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiA1IGlzIGEgaHlwZXJwb2xhcml6YXRpb24sIGFsc28ga25vd24gYXMgdGhlIHVuZGVyc2hvb3QuIEF0IHRoaXMgcG9pbnQsIHRoZSBtZW1icmFuZSBpcyBldmVuIG1vcmUgbmVnYXRpdmUgdGhhbiBpdCBpcyBkdXJpbmcgaXRzIHJlc3RpbmcgcG90ZW50aWFsLsKgwqBSZXBvbGFyaXphdGlvbiBpcyB3aGVuIHRoZSBtZW1icmFuZSwgZGVwb2xhcml6ZWQgYnkgdGhlIHJpc2luZyBwaGFzZSBvZiB0aGUgYWN0aW9uIHBvdGVudGlhbCwgcmVzdG9yZXMgaXRzIG5lZ2F0aXZlIGNoYXJnZS4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Animal_Systems” dataset_id=”144Qs|9431bd0247734″ question_number=”101″] The diagram below shows synaptic transmission. What is shown by letters X and Y?

[c]IFggc2hvd3MgbmV1cm90cmFuc21pdHRlciBlbnRlcmluZyB0aGUgc3luYXB0aWMga25vYi4gWSBzaG93cyBDYQ==Mis=IGlvbnMu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50LiBUaGUgbGl0dGxlIHNwaGVyZXMgdGhhdCBkaWZmdXNlIGZyb20gdGhlIGF4b25hbCBidWxiIChvbiB0b3ApIHRvIHRoZSBwb3N0c3luYXB0aWMgbWVtYnJhbmUgKGJlbG93KSBhcmUgbmV1cm90cmFuc21pdHRlci4gV2hhdCBoYXMgdG8gZGlmZnVzZSBpbnRvIHRoZSBtZW1icmFuZSBpbiBvcmRlciB0byBpbmR1Y2UgdGhlIHZlc2ljbGVzIGNvbnRhaW5pbmcgbmV1cm90cmFuc21pdHRlciB0byBtb3ZlIHRvIHRoZSB0aXAgb2YgdGhlIGF4b24gYW5kIHJlbGVhc2UgdGhlaXIgY29udGVudHMu[Qq]

[c]IFggc2hvd3MgSw==Kw==IGlvbnMgZGlmZnVzaW5nIGludG8gdGhlIHN5bmFwdGljIGtub2IuIFkgc2hvd3MgbmV1cm90cmFuc21pdHRlci4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLsKgSw==Kw==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[Qq]

[c]IFggc2hvd3MgTmE=Kw==IGlvbnMgZGlmZnVzaW5nIGludG8gdGhlIHN5bmFwdGljIGtub2IuIFkgc2hvd3PCoCBDYQ==MivCoA==aW9ucy4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLsKgTmE=Kw==wqBpb25zIGFyZSBpbnZvbHZlZCBpbiBhY3Rpb24gcG90ZW50aWFscywgYW5kwqBDYQ==MivCoA==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[Qq]

[c]IFggc2hv d3MgQ2E=Mis=IGlvbnMgZGlmZnVzaW5nIGludG8gdGhlIHN5bmFwdGljIGtub2IuIFkgc2hvd3MgbmV1cm90cmFuc21pdHRlci4=[Qq]

[f]IEZhYnVsb3VzISBBZnRlcsKgQ2E=Mis=IGlvbnMgZGlmZnVzaW5nIGludG8gdGhlIHN5bmFwdGljIGtub2IgKGF0IFgpIHRoZXkmIzgyMTc7bGwgaW5kdWNlIHZlc2ljbGVzIGNvbnRhaW5pbmcgbmV1cm90cmFuc21pdHRlciAoYXQgWSkgdG8gcmVsZWFzZSB0aGVpciBjb250ZW50cyBpbnRvIHRoZSBzeW5hcHNlLg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Animal_Systems” dataset_id=”144Qs|9423e9fbadb34″ question_number=”102″] In a neuron at rest, which of the following conditions is true?

[c]IENobG9yaW5lIGlvbnMgY2FuIGZyZWVseSBkaWZmdXNlIGZyb20gdGhlIGludHJhY2VsbHVsYXIgZmx1aWQgb3V0IG9mIHRoZSBjZWxsLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgbWVtYnJhbmUgb2YgbmV1cm9ucyBpcyByZWxhdGl2ZWx5IGltcGVybWVhYmxlIHRvIG5lZ2F0aXZlIGlvbnMu[Qq]

[c]IFBvdGFzc2l1bSBpb25zIGFyZSBpbiBoaWdoZXIgY29uY2VudHJhdGlv biBpbnNpZGUgdGhlIGNlbGwgdGhhbiBvdXRzaWRlIHRoZSBjZWxsLg==[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gRHVlIHRvIHRoZSBhY3Rpdml0eSBvZiB0aGUgc29kaXVtIHBvdGFzc2l1bSBwdW1wLCBhIG5ldXJvbiBhdCByZXN0IGhhcyBhIGhpZ2hlciBjb25jZW50cmF0aW9uIG9mIHBvdGFzc2l1bSBpb25zIGluc2lkZSB0aGUgY2VsbCB0aGFuIG91dHNpZGUu[Qq]

[c]IExhcmdlIG5lZ2F0aXZlbHkgY2hhcmdlZCBpb25zIGFyZSBjb25jZW50cmF0ZWQgaW4gdGhlIGV4dHJhY2VsbHVsYXIgZmx1aWQu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBJdCYjODIxNztzIGFjdHVhbGx5IHRoZSBvcHBvc2l0ZTrCoGxhcmdlIG5lZ2F0aXZlbHkgY2hhcmdlZCBpb25zIGFyZSBjb25jZW50cmF0ZWQgaW4gdGhlIGludHJhY2VsbHVsYXIgZmx1aWQu[Qq]

[c]IFNvZGl1bSBpb25zIGFyZSBjb25zdGFudGx5IGVudGVyaW5nIHRoZSBjZWxsIGJlY2F1c2Ugb2YgdGhlIHNvZGl1bSBwb3Rhc3NpdW0gcHVtcC4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGXCoHNvZGl1bSBwb3Rhc3NpdW0gcHVtcCBwdW1wcyBzb2RpdW0gaW9ucyBvdXQgb2YgdGhlIGNlbGwsIHdoaWxlIHB1bXBpbmcgcG90YXNzaXVtIGlvbnMgaW50byB0aGUgY2VsbC4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Cells|Membranes” dataset_id=”144Qs|94163c35d2334″ question_number=”103″] In the image below, which represents a signal transduction pathway, which letter represents a receptor?

[c]IEE=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBIGlzIHRoZSBsaWdhbmQuIFlvdSYjODIxNztyZSBsb29raW5nIGZvciB0aGUgcmVjZXB0b3IsIHdoaWNoIGlzIHRoZSBtZW1icmFuZSBwcm90ZWluIHRoYXQgYmluZHMgd2l0aCB0aGUgbGlnYW5kLg==[Qq]

[c]IE I=[Qq]

[f]IENvcnJlY3QhICYjODIyMDtCJiM4MjIxOyBpcyB0aGUgcmVjZXB0b3Iu[Qq]

[c]IEM=[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IEQ=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLklmIHRoaXMgZGlhZ3JhbSB3ZXJlIGEgcmVwcmVzZW50YXRpb24gb2YgYSBHLWNvdXBsZWQgcmVjZXB0b3IsIHRoZSBsZXR0ZXIgJiM4MjIwO0QmIzgyMjE7IHdvdWxkIHJlcHJlc2VudCB0aGUgYWN0aXZpdHkgb2YgYSBzZWNvbmQgbWVzc2VuZ2VyLCBvciBhbiBlbnRpcmUgcGhvc3Bob3J5bGF0aW9uIGNhc2NhZGUuwqBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgbG9va2luZyBmb3IgdGhlIHJlY2VwdG9yLCB3aGljaCBpcyB0aGUgbWVtYnJhbmUgcHJvdGVpbiB0aGF0IGJpbmRzIHdpdGggdGhlIGxpZ2FuZC4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Cells|Membranes” dataset_id=”144Qs|9408692f38734″ question_number=”104″] The image below represents a signal transduction pathway. Which letter represents a ligand?

[c]IE E=

Cg==

Jm5ic3A7

Cg==

Jm5ic3A7

[Qq]

[f*]Exactly. A is the ligand.

[f]IEdvb2Qh[Qq]

[c]IEI=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAmIzgyMjA7QiYjODIyMTsgaXMgdGhlIHJlY2VwdG9yLiBUaGUgbGlnYW5kIGlzIHRoZSBtb2xlY3VsZSB0aGF0IGJpbmRzIHdpdGggdGhlIHJlY2VwdG9yLg==[Qq]

[c]IEM=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBJZiB0aGlzIGRpYWdyYW0gd2VyZSBhIHJlcHJlc2VudGF0aW9uIG9mIGEgRy1jb3VwbGVkIHJlY2VwdG9yLCB0aGUgbGV0dGVyICYjODIyMDtDJiM4MjIxOyB3b3VsZCByZXByZXNlbnQgYSBHIHByb3RlaW4uIFRoZSBHIHByb3RlaW4mIzgyMTc7cyBmdW5jdGlvbiBpcyB0byBhY3RpdmF0ZSBhIHNlY29uZCBtZXNzZW5nZXIgdGhhdCB3b3VsZCBzZW5kIGEgbWVzc2FnZSB0aHJvdWdoIHZhcmlvdXMgcmVsYXkgbW9sZWN1bGVzIGluIHRoZSBjeXRvcGxhc20gdG8gYWN0aXZhdGUgYSBjZWxsdWxhciByZXNwb25zZS4gVGhlIGxpZ2FuZCBpcyB0aGUgbW9sZWN1bGUgdGhhdCBiaW5kcyB3aXRoIHRoZSByZWNlcHRvci4=[Qq]

[c]IEQ=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLklmIHRoaXMgZGlhZ3JhbSB3ZXJlIGEgcmVwcmVzZW50YXRpb24gb2YgYSBHLWNvdXBsZWQgcmVjZXB0b3IsIHRoZSBsZXR0ZXIgJiM4MjIwO0QmIzgyMjE7IHdvdWxkIHJlcHJlc2VudCBhIHBob3NwaG9yeWxhdGlvbiBjYXNjYWRlLsKgVGhlIGxpZ2FuZCBpcyB0aGUgbW9sZWN1bGUgdGhhdCBiaW5kcyB3aXRoIHRoZSByZWNlcHRvci4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Cells|Membranes” dataset_id=”144Qs|93f8fc6071f34″ question_number=”105″] The image below represents a signal transduction pathway. Which letter represents second messengers?

[c]IEE=

Cg==

Jm5ic3A7

Cg==

Jm5ic3A7

[Qq]

[f*]No. A is the ligand. The second messengers are molecules that relay the message into the cytoplasm to bring about a response.

[f]IE5vLg==[Qq]

[c]IEI=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAmIzgyMjA7QiYjODIyMTsgaXMgdGhlIHJlY2VwdG9yLiBUaGUgc2Vjb25kIG1lc3NlbmdlcnMgYXJlIG1vbGVjdWxlcyB0aGF0IHJlbGF5IHRoZSBtZXNzYWdlIGludG8gdGhlIGN5dG9wbGFzbSB0byBicmluZyBhYm91dCBhIHJlc3BvbnNlLg==[Qq]

[c]IEM=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBJZiB0aGlzIGRpYWdyYW0gd2VyZSBhIHJlcHJlc2VudGF0aW9uIG9mIGEgRy1jb3VwbGVkIHJlY2VwdG9yLCB0aGUgbGV0dGVyICYjODIyMDtDJiM4MjIxOyB3b3VsZCByZXByZXNlbnQgYSBHIHByb3RlaW4uIFRoZSBHIHByb3RlaW4mIzgyMTc7cyBmdW5jdGlvbiBpcyB0byBhY3RpdmF0ZSBhIHNlY29uZCBtZXNzZW5nZXIgdGhhdCB3b3VsZCBzZW5kIGEgbWVzc2FnZSB0aHJvdWdoIHZhcmlvdXMgcmVsYXkgbW9sZWN1bGVzIGluIHRoZSBjeXRvcGxhc20gdG8gYWN0aXZhdGUgYSBjZWxsdWxhciByZXNwb25zZSYjODIzMDthbmQgdGhhdCYjODIxNztzIGEgcHJldHR5IGJpZyBoaW50IGFzIHRvIHdoaWNoIHBhcnQgb2YgdGhlIGRpYWdyYW0gcmVwcmVzZW50cyB0aGUgc2Vjb25kIG1lc3NlbmdlcnMu[Qq]

[c]IE Q=[Qq]

[f]IEZhYnVsb3VzISBJZiB0aGlzIGRpYWdyYW0gd2VyZSBhIHJlcHJlc2VudGF0aW9uIG9mIGEgRy1jb3VwbGVkIHJlY2VwdG9yLCB0aGUgbGV0dGVyICYjODIyMDtEJiM4MjIxOyB3b3VsZCByZXByZXNlbnQgYSBzZWNvbmQgbWVzc2VuZ2VyIChvciBhbiBlbnRpcmUgcGhvc3Bob3J5bGF0aW9uIGNhc2NhZGUp[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Cells|Membranes” dataset_id=”144Qs|93e7d088c0734″ question_number=”106″] The image below represents a signal transduction pathway. Which letter could represent a hormone?

[c]IE E=

Cg==

Jm5ic3A7

Cg==

Jm5ic3A7

[Qq]

[f*]Exactly. “A” would represent a hormone.

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCE=[Qq]

[c]IEI=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAmIzgyMjA7QiYjODIyMTsgaXMgdGhlIHJlY2VwdG9yLiBUaGUgaG9ybW9uZSBpcyB0aGUgbW9sZWN1bGUgdGhhdCBiaW5kcyB3aXRoIHRoZSByZWNlcHRvci4=[Qq]

[c]IEM=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBJZiB0aGlzIGRpYWdyYW0gd2VyZSBhIHJlcHJlc2VudGF0aW9uIG9mIGEgRy1jb3VwbGVkIHJlY2VwdG9yLCB0aGUgbGV0dGVyICYjODIyMDtDJiM4MjIxOyB3b3VsZCByZXByZXNlbnQgYSBHIHByb3RlaW4uIFRoZSBHIHByb3RlaW4mIzgyMTc7cyBmdW5jdGlvbiBpcyB0byBhY3RpdmF0ZSBhIHNlY29uZCBtZXNzZW5nZXIgdGhhdCB3b3VsZCBzZW5kIGEgbWVzc2FnZSB0aHJvdWdoIHZhcmlvdXMgcmVsYXkgbW9sZWN1bGVzIGluIHRoZSBjeXRvcGxhc20gdG8gYWN0aXZhdGUgYSBjZWxsdWxhciByZXNwb25zZS4gVGhlIGhvcm1vbmUgaXMgdGhlIG1vbGVjdWxlIHRoYXQgYmluZHMgd2l0aCB0aGUgcmVjZXB0b3Iu[Qq]

[c]IEQ=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLklmIHRoaXMgZGlhZ3JhbSB3ZXJlIGEgcmVwcmVzZW50YXRpb24gb2YgYSBHLWNvdXBsZWQgcmVjZXB0b3IsIHRoZSBsZXR0ZXIgJiM4MjIwO0QmIzgyMjE7IHdvdWxkIHJlcHJlc2VudCBhIHNlY29uZCBtZXNzZW5nZXIsIG9yIGFuIGVudGlyZSBwaG9zcGhvcnlsYXRpb24gY2FzY2FkZS7CoFRoZSBob3Jtb25lIGlzIHRoZSBtb2xlY3VsZSB0aGF0IGJpbmRzIHdpdGggdGhlIHJlY2VwdG9yLg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Cells|Membranes” dataset_id=”144Qs|93d9fd8226b34″ question_number=”107″] The image below represents a signal transduction pathway. Which letter represents a protein kinase?

[c]IEE=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAmIzgyMjA7QSYjODIyMTsgcmVwcmVzZW50cyBhIGxpZ2FuZC4gVGhlIHByb3RlaW4ga2luYXNlIGlzIGZvdW5kIHdpdGhpbiB0aGUgY3l0b3BsYXNtLCByZWxheWluZyB0aGUgbWVzc2FnZSBmcm9tIHRoZSBtZW1icmFuZSB0byBzb21lIGVmZmVjdG9yIHdpdGhpbiB0aGUgY2VsbC4=[Qq]

[c]IEI=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAmIzgyMjA7QiYjODIyMTsgcmVwcmVzZW50cyBhIHJlY2VwdG9yLiBUaGUgcHJvdGVpbiBraW5hc2UgaXMgZm91bmQgd2l0aGluIHRoZSBjeXRvcGxhc20sIHJlbGF5aW5nIHRoZSBtZXNzYWdlIGZyb20gdGhlIG1lbWJyYW5lIHRvIHNvbWUgZWZmZWN0b3Igd2l0aGluIHRoZSBjZWxsLg==[Qq]

[c]IEM=[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IE Q=[Qq]

[f]IFllcyEgJiM4MjIwO0QmIzgyMjE7IHJlcHJlc2VudHMgcHJvdGVpbiBraW5hc2VzLCBwYXJ0aWNpcGF0aW5nIGluIGEgcGhvc3Bob3J5bGF0aW9uIGNhc2NhZGUgdGhhdCBpcyBhbXBsaWZ5aW5nIHRoZSBjZWxsdWxhciByZXNwb25zZS4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Cells|Membranes” dataset_id=”144Qs|93cc4fbc4b334″ question_number=”108″] The image below represents a signal transduction pathway. Which roman numeral represents reception?

[c]IE k=[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gJiM4MjIwO0kmIzgyMjE7IHJlcHJlc2VudHMgcmVjZXB0aW9uLg==[Qq]

[c]IElJ[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAmIzgyMjA7SUkmIzgyMjE7IHJlcHJlc2VudHMgc2lnbmFsIHRyYW5zZHVjdGlvbiAoY29udmVyc2lvbiBvZiB0aGUgaW5pdGlhbCBzaWduYWwsIHRoZSBob3Jtb25lLCBpbnRvIG9uZSB0aGF0IGNhbiBiZSBjYXJyaWVkIGludG8gdGhlIGN5dG9wbGFzbSB0byBicmluZyBhYm91dCBhIGNlbGx1bGFyIHJlc3BvbnNlKS4=[Qq]

[c]IElJSQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAmIzgyMjA7SUlJJiM4MjIxOyByZXByZXNlbnRzIHRoZSBjZWxsdWxhciByZXNwb25zZS4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Cells|Membranes” dataset_id=”144Qs|93be7cb5b1734″ question_number=”109″] The image below represents a signal transduction pathway. Which roman numeral represents transduction?

[c]IEk=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAmIzgyMjA7SSYjODIyMTsgcmVwcmVzZW50cyByZWNlcHRpb24u[Qq]

[c]IE lJ[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gJiM4MjIwO0lJJiM4MjIxOyByZXByZXNlbnRzIHNpZ25hbCB0cmFuc2R1Y3Rpb24gKGNvbnZlcnNpb24gb2YgdGhlIGluaXRpYWwgc2lnbmFsLCB0aGUgaG9ybW9uZSwgaW50byBvbmUgdGhhdCBjYW4gYmUgY2FycmllZCBpbnRvIHRoZSBjeXRvcGxhc20gdG8gYnJpbmcgYWJvdXQgYSBjZWxsdWxhciByZXNwb25zZSku[Qq]

[c]IElJSQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAmIzgyMjA7SUlJJiM4MjIxOyByZXByZXNlbnRzIHRoZSBjZWxsdWxhciByZXNwb25zZS4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Cells|Membranes” dataset_id=”144Qs|93b0a9af17b34″ question_number=”110″] In the diagram below, which stage represents signal transduction?

[c]IEk=[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IE lJ[Qq]

[f]IENvcnJlY3QuIFN0YWdlIElJIGlzIHRyYW5zZHVjdGlvbi4=[Qq]

[c]IElJSQ==[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IElW[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IFY=[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Cells|Membranes” dataset_id=”144Qs|93a2b167bfb34″ question_number=”111″] In the diagram below, which stage represents reception?

[c]IE k=[Qq]

[f]IE5pY2UhLiBTdGFnZSBJIGlzIHJlY2VwdGlvbi4=[Qq]

[c]IElJ[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBTdGFnZSBJSSBpcyB0cmFuc2R1Y3Rpb24uIFJlY2VwdGlvbiBpcyB3aGVuIHRoZSBsaWdhbmQgKHVzdWFsbHkgYSBob3Jtb25lKSBiaW5kcyB3aXRoIGEgcmVjZXB0b3IgKHVzdWFsbHkgb24gdGhlIG1lbWJyYW5lKS4=[Qq]

[c]IElJSQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBTdGFnZSBJSUkgaXMgcmVzcG9uc2UuwqBSZWNlcHRpb24gaXMgd2hlbiB0aGUgbGlnYW5kICh1c3VhbGx5IGEgaG9ybW9uZSkgYmluZHMgd2l0aCBhIHJlY2VwdG9yICh1c3VhbGx5IG9uIHRoZSBtZW1icmFuZSku[Qq]

[c]IElW[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBJbiBzdGFnZSBJViwgc29tZXRoaW5nIHRoYXQgbGVmdCB0aGUgbnVjbGV1cyAoNSkgaXMgaGVhZGVkIHRvd2FyZCB0aGUgR29sZ2kgYXBwYXJhdHVzLsKgUmVjZXB0aW9uIGlzIHdoZW4gdGhlIGxpZ2FuZCAodXN1YWxseSBhIGhvcm1vbmUpIGJpbmRzIHdpdGggYSByZWNlcHRvciAodXN1YWxseSBvbiB0aGUgbWVtYnJhbmUpLg==[Qq]

[c]IFY=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBJbiBzdGFnZSBWLCBzb21ldGhpbmcgaXMgYmVpbmcgZXhwb3J0ZWQgZnJvbSB0aGUgY2VsbCAod2hpY2ggaXMgcGFydCBvZiB0aGUgY2VsbHVsYXIgcmVzcG9uc2UpLsKgUmVjZXB0aW9uIGlzIHdoZW4gdGhlIGxpZ2FuZCAodXN1YWxseSBhIGhvcm1vbmUpIGJpbmRzIHdpdGggYSByZWNlcHRvciAodXN1YWxseSBvbiB0aGUgbWVtYnJhbmUpLg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Cells|Membranes” dataset_id=”144Qs|9394b92067b34″ question_number=”112″] In the diagram below, which stage represents exocytosis?

[c]IEk=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBTdGFnZSBJIGlzIHJlY2VwdGlvbi4gRXhvY3l0b3NpcyBtZWFucyAmIzgyMjA7ZXhwb3J0IGZyb20gdGhlIGNlbGwuJiM4MjIxOw==[Qq]

[c]IElJ[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBTdGFnZSBJSSBpcyB0cmFuc2R1Y3Rpb24uRXhvY3l0b3NpcyBtZWFucyAmIzgyMjA7ZXhwb3J0IGZyb20gdGhlIGNlbGwuJiM4MjIxOw==[Qq]

[c]IElJSQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBTdGFnZSBJSUkgaXMgcmVzcG9uc2UuIEV4b2N5dG9zaXMgbWVhbnMgJiM4MjIwO2V4cG9ydCBmcm9tIHRoZSBjZWxsLiYjODIyMTs=[Qq]

[c]IElW[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBJbiBzdGFnZSBJViwgYSBwcm90ZWluIGlzIGhlYWRlZCB0b3dhcmQgdGhlIEdvbGdpIGFwcGFyYXR1cy5FeG9jeXRvc2lzIG1lYW5zICYjODIyMDtleHBvcnQgZnJvbSB0aGUgY2VsbC4mIzgyMjE7[Qq]

[c]IF Y=[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gU3RhZ2UgViBpcyBleG9jeXRvc2lzLCB0aGUgZXhwb3J0IG9mIHNvbWV0aGluZyBmcm9tIHRoZSBjZWxsLg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Cells|Membranes” dataset_id=”144Qs|9386765793334″ question_number=”113″] If 5 represents a newly synthesized protein, then 6 would most likely be

[c]IGEgcmlib3NvbWU=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBSaWJvc29tZXMgYXJlIHdoZXJlIHByb3RlaW5zIGFyZSBzeW50aGVzaXplZC4gSWYgNSByZXByZXNlbnRzIGEgcHJvdGVpbiwgdGhlbiA2IHdvdWxkIHJlcHJlc2VudCBhIHBhcnQgb2YgdGhlIGNlbGwgd2hlcmUgcHJvdGVpbnMgZ28gYWZ0ZXIgc3ludGhlc2lzLsKgV2hhdCBwYXJ0IG9mIGEgZXVrYXJ5b3RpYyBjZWxsIGlzIHJlc3BvbnNpYmxlIGZvciBtb2RpZnlpbmcgYW5kIHBhY2thZ2luZyBwcm90ZWlucz8=[Qq]

[c]IGEgbWl0b2Nob25kcmlvbg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBNaXRvY2hvbmRyaWEgYXJlIG9yZ2FuZWxsZXMgaW52b2x2ZWQgaW4gQVRQIHN5bnRoZXNpcywgYW5kIGFyZW4mIzgyMTc7dCByZXByZXNlbnRlZCBhbnl3aGVyZSBhYm92ZS4gSGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGEgaGludDrCoElmIDUgcmVwcmVzZW50cyBhIHByb3RlaW4sIHRoZW4gNiB3b3VsZCByZXByZXNlbnQgYSBwYXJ0IG9mIHRoZSBjZWxsIHdoZXJlIHByb3RlaW5zIGdvIGFmdGVyIHN5bnRoZXNpcy4gV2hhdCBwYXJ0IG9mIGEgZXVrYXJ5b3RpYyBjZWxsIGlzIHJlc3BvbnNpYmxlIGZvciBtb2RpZnlpbmcgYW5kIHBhY2thZ2luZyBwcm90ZWlucz8=[Qq]

[c]IHRoZSBnb2xn aSBjb21wbGV4[Qq]

[f]IEZhYnVsb3VzISBJZiA1IHJlcHJlc2VudHMgYSBwcm90ZWluLCB0aGVuIDYgd291bGQgYmUgdGhlIEdvbGdpIGNvbXBsZXgu[Qq]

[c]IHRoZSByb3VnaCBlbmRvcGxhc21pYyByZXRpY3VsdW0=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgcm91Z2ggZW5kb3BsYXNtaWMgcmV0aWN1bHVtIGlzIHdoZXJlIHByb3RlaW5zIGRlc3RpbmVkIGZvciBleHBvcnQgKG9yIGZvciBhIGx5c29zb21lKSBhcmUgc3ludGhlc2l6ZWQuIFRoZSBxdWVzdGlvbiB0ZWxscyB5b3UgdGhhdCA1IGlzIGEgcHJvdGVpbiB0aGF0IGhhcyBhbHJlYWR5IGJlZW4gc3ludGhlc2l6ZWQuIFdoZXJlIHdvdWxkIHByb3RlaW5zIGdvIGFmdGVyIGJlaW5nIHN5bnRoZXNpemVkIGZvciBtb2RpZmljYXRpb24gYW5kIHBhY2thZ2luZz8=[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Cells|Membranes” dataset_id=”144Qs|9374fffe65334″ question_number=”114″] In the diagram below, which part represents a ligand?

[c]ID E=[Qq]

[f]IE5pY2UhIDEgaXMgdGhlIGxpZ2FuZC4=[Qq]

[c]IDI=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAyIGlzIGEgcmVjZXB0b3IuIFRoZSBsaWdhbmQgaXMgd2hhdCBiaW5kcyB3aXRoIGEgcmVjZXB0b3Iu[Qq]

[c]IDM=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAzIGlzIHRha2luZyBhIG1lc3NhZ2UgZnJvbSB0aGUgbWVtYnJhbmUsIGFuZCBicmluZ2luZyBpdCB0byB0aGUgbnVjbGV1cywgbWFraW5nIGl0IGEgc2Vjb25kIG1lc3Nlbmdlci4gVGhlIGxpZ2FuZCBpcyB3aGF0IGJpbmRzIHdpdGggYSByZWNlcHRvci4=[Qq]

[c]IDQ=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiA0IGlzIHRoZSBudWNsZXVzLsKgVGhlIGxpZ2FuZCBpcyB3aGF0IGJpbmRzIHdpdGggYSByZWNlcHRvciBhdCB0aGUgbWVtYnJhbmUu[Qq]

[c]IDU=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiA1IGlzIHNvbWV0aGluZyB0aGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgaGVhZGluZyB0b3dhcmQgdGhlIEdvbGdpIGFwcGFyYXR1cywgbWFraW5nIDUgYSBuZXdseSBzeW50aGVzaXplZCBwcm90ZWluLsKgVGhlIGxpZ2FuZCBpcyB3aGF0IGJpbmRzIHdpdGggYSByZWNlcHRvci4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Cells|Membranes” dataset_id=”144Qs|9365ddb11b334″ question_number=”115″] In the diagram below, which part represents a second messenger?

[c]IDE=[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IDI=[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]ID M=[Qq]

[f]IFdheSB0byBnbyEgMyBpcyB0aGUgc2Vjb25kIG1lc3Nlbmdlci4=[Qq]

[c]IDQ=[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IDU=[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Cells|Membranes” dataset_id=”144Qs|9357e569c3334″ question_number=”116″] In the diagram below, transcription factors would be active at

[c]IDE=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAxIGlzIGEgbGlnYW5kLiBUcmFuc2NyaXB0aW9uIGZhY3RvcnMgYXJlIHN1YnN0YW5jZXMgdGhhdCBlbnRlciBpbnRvIHRoZSBudWNsZXVzIGFuZCBpbmR1Y2UgdHJhbnNjcmlwdGlvbiBvZiBnZW5lcy4gVGFrZSBhbm90aGVyIGxvb2sgYXQgdGhlIGRpYWdyYW0sIGFuZCBpZGVudGlmeSBhIHBhcnQgdGhhdCBjb3VsZCBmaXQgdGhhdCBkZXNjcmlwdGlvbi4=[Qq]

[c]IDI=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAyIGlzIGEgcmVjZXB0b3IuIFRyYW5zY3JpcHRpb24gZmFjdG9ycyBhcmUgc3Vic3RhbmNlcyB0aGF0IGVudGVyIGludG8gdGhlIG51Y2xldXMgYW5kIGluZHVjZSB0cmFuc2NyaXB0aW9uIG9mIGdlbmVzLiBUYWtlIGFub3RoZXIgbG9vayBhdCB0aGUgZGlhZ3JhbSwgYW5kIGlkZW50aWZ5IGEgcGFydCB0aGF0IGNvdWxkIGZpdCB0aGF0IGRlc2NyaXB0aW9uLg==[Qq]

[c]IDM=[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]ID Q=[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gNCByZXByZXNlbnRzIHRoZSBudWNsZXVzLCB3aGljaCBpcyB3aGVyZSB0aGUgc2Vjb25kIG1lc3NlbmdlcnMgKHdoaWNoIGFyZSB0cmFuc2NyaXB0aW9uIGZhY3RvcnMpIGFyZSBnb2luZyB0byBhY3RpdmF0ZSB0cmFuc2NyaXB0aW9uIG9mIHNwZWNpZmljIGdlbmVzLg==[Qq]

[c]IDU=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiA1IHJlcHJlc2VudHMgcHJvdGVpbnMgdGhhdCBoYXZlIGJlZW4gcHJvZHVjZWQgYmVjYXVzZSBvZiB0aGUgYWN0aXZpdHkgb2YgdHJhbnNjcmlwdGlvbiBmYWN0b3JzLsKgVHJhbnNjcmlwdGlvbiBmYWN0b3JzIGFyZSBzdWJzdGFuY2VzIHRoYXQgZW50ZXIgaW50byB0aGUgbnVjbGV1cyBhbmQgaW5kdWNlIHRyYW5zY3JpcHRpb24gb2YgZ2VuZXMuIFRha2UgYW5vdGhlciBsb29rIGF0IHRoZSBkaWFncmFtLCBhbmQgaWRlbnRpZnkgYSBwYXJ0IHRoYXQgY291bGQgZml0IHRoYXQgZGVzY3JpcHRpb24u[Qq]

 

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Animal_Systems” dataset_id=”144Qs|9349c7e1acf34″ question_number=”117″] In a physiology laboratory exercise, students place electrodes at a point on a nerve cell of a living organism. The nerve cell is then stimulated, resulting in the graph below.

From the following list, the most reasonable claim is

[c]IEosIHJlcHJlc2VudHMgdGhlIHJlc3RpbmcgcG90ZW50aWFsIG9mIHRoZSBuZXJ2ZS4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBKIHJlcHJlc2VudHMgdGhlIGh5cGVycG9sYXJpemF0aW9uLCBvciB1bmRlcnNob290Lg==[Qq]

[c]IGR1cmluZyBwaGFzZSBGLCBtb3JlIHNvZGl1bSBpb25zIGFyZSBl bnRlcmluZyB0aGUgY2VsbCB0aGFuIGV4aXRpbmcgdGhlIGNlbGwu[Qq]

[f]IE5pY2UuIEYgaXMgdGhlIHJpc2luZyBwaGFzZSBvZiB0aGUgYWN0aW9uIHBvdGVudGlhbC4gQXQgdGhpcyBwb2ludCwgdGhlIG1lbWJyYW5lIGlzIGRlcG9sYXJpemluZyBhcyB2b2x0YWdlIHNlbnNpdGl2ZSBzb2RpdW0gZ2F0ZXMgb3BlbiwgYWxsb3dpbmcgc29kaXVtIGlvbnMgdG8gZW50ZXIgdGhlIGNlbGwu[Qq]

[c]IGR1cmluZyBwaGFzZSBLLCB0aGUgY2VsbCB3aWxsIG5vIGxvbmdlciByZXNwb25kIHRvIGFkZGl0aW9uYWwgc3RpbXVsYXRpb24u[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uIGlzIHJlZmVycmluZyB0byB0aGUgcmVmcmFjdG9yeSBwZXJpb2QsIHdoaWNoIGlzIHdoZW4gdGhlIG1lbWJyYW5lIGNhbiYjODIxNzt0IHJlc3BvbmQgdG8gc3RpbXVsYXRpb24uIFRoYXQgaGFwcGVucyBkdXJpbmcgcGhhc2UgSi7CoCBCeSBwaGFzZSBLLCB0aGUgcmVzdGluZyBwb3RlbnRpYWwgaGFzIGJlZW4gcmVzdG9yZWQsIGFuZCBmdXJ0aGVyIHN0aW11bGF0aW9uIGlzIHBvc3NpYmxlLg==[Qq]

[c]IHRoZSBzdGltdWx1cyB3aWxsIG9ubHkgaGF2ZSBhbiBlZmZlY3Qgd2hlbiB0aGUgbWVtYnJhbmUgcG90ZW50aWFsIGlzIHBvc2l0aXZlLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBOZXJ2ZSBjZWxscyBjYW4gb25seSByZXNwb25kIHRvIHN0aW11bGkgd2hlbiB0aGV5JiM4MjE3O3JlIGF0IHJlc3RpbmcgcG90ZW50aWFsLiBEdXJpbmcgcmVzdGluZyBwb3RlbnRpYWwsIHRoZSBtZW1icmFuZSBpcyBwb2xhcml6ZWQgYXQgYWJvdXQgJiM4MjExOyA3MCBtVi4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Animal_Systems” dataset_id=”144Qs|933af015df734″ question_number=”118″] In a physiology laboratory exercise, students place electrodes at a point on a nerve cell of a living organism. The nerve cell is then stimulated, resulting in the graph below.

Which of the following is closest to the threshold potential?

[c]IC03MCBtVg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAtNzAgbVYgaXMgdGhlIHJlc3RpbmcgcG90ZW50aWFsLiBXaGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgdHJpY2t5IGFib3V0IHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24gaXMgdGhhdCB0aGUgdGhyZXNob2xkIHBvdGVudGlhbCBpc24mIzgyMTc7dCBkaXJlY3RseSBzaG93bi4gQWxsIEkmIzgyMTc7bGwgZ2l2ZSB5b3UgYXMgYSBoaW50IGlzIHRoYXQgaXQmIzgyMTc7cyBsZXNzIG5lZ2F0aXZlIHRoYW4gdGhlIHJlc3RpbmcgcG90ZW50aWFsLg==[Qq]

[c]IC01NS BtVg==[Qq]

[f]IENvcnJlY3QuIFRoZSB0aHJlc2hvbGQgcG90ZW50aWFsIGZvciBhIG5ldXJvbiBpcyBhYm91dCAtNTVtVi4=[Qq]

[c]IC0zMCBtVg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAtMzBtViBpcyBhYm92ZSB0aGUgdGhyZXNob2xkIHBvdGVudGlhbC7CoFdoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyB0cmlja3kgYWJvdXQgdGhpcyBxdWVzdGlvbiBpcyB0aGF0IHRoZSB0aHJlc2hvbGQgcG90ZW50aWFsIGlzbiYjODIxNzt0IGRpcmVjdGx5IHNob3duLiBBbGwgSSYjODIxNztsbCBnaXZlIHlvdSBhcyBhIGhpbnQgaXMgdGhhdCBpdCYjODIxNztzIGxlc3MgbmVnYXRpdmUgdGhhbiB0aGUgcmVzdGluZyBwb3RlbnRpYWwu[Qq]

[c]IDAgbVY=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAwbVYgaXMgd2F5IGFib3ZlIHRoZSB0aHJlc2hvbGQgcG90ZW50aWFsLsKgV2hhdCYjODIxNztzIHRyaWNreSBhYm91dCB0aGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uIGlzIHRoYXQgdGhlIHRocmVzaG9sZCBwb3RlbnRpYWwgaXNuJiM4MjE3O3QgZGlyZWN0bHkgc2hvd24uIEFsbCBJJiM4MjE3O2xsIGdpdmUgeW91IGFzIGEgaGludCBpcyB0aGF0IGl0JiM4MjE3O3MgbGVzcyBuZWdhdGl2ZSB0aGFuIHRoZSByZXN0aW5nIHBvdGVudGlhbC4=[Qq]

[c]ICszMCBtVg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiArMzAgbVYgaXMgd2F5IGFib3ZlIHRoZSB0aHJlc2hvbGQgcG90ZW50aWFsLsKgV2hhdCYjODIxNztzIHRyaWNreSBhYm91dCB0aGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uIGlzIHRoYXQgdGhlIHRocmVzaG9sZCBwb3RlbnRpYWwgaXNuJiM4MjE3O3QgZGlyZWN0bHkgc2hvd24uIEFsbCBJJiM4MjE3O2xsIGdpdmUgeW91IGFzIGEgaGludCBpcyB0aGF0IGl0JiM4MjE3O3MgbGVzcyBuZWdhdGl2ZSB0aGFuIHRoZSByZXN0aW5nIHBvdGVudGlhbC4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Animal_Systems” dataset_id=”144Qs|932cd28dc9334″ question_number=”119″] In a physiology laboratory exercise, students place electrodes at a point on a nerve cell of a living organism. The nerve cell is then stimulated, resulting in the graph below.

Membrane depolarization is occurring during

[c]IE Y=[Qq]

[f]IFdheSB0byBnbyEgRiBpcyBzaG93aW5nIG1lbWJyYW5lIGRlcG9sYXJpemF0aW9uLg==[Qq]

[c]IEg=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBdCBILCB0aGUgbWVtYnJhbmUgaXMgcmVwb2xhcml6aW5nIChiZWNvbWluZyBuZWdhdGl2ZSBhZ2FpbikuIERlcG9sYXJpemF0aW9uIGlzIHdoZW4gdGhlIG1lbWJyYW5lIGlzIHNoaWZ0aW5nIGZyb20gaXRzIG5lZ2F0aXZlIHJlc3RpbmcgcG90ZW50aWFsIHRvIHBvc2l0aXZlLiBXaGF0IGxldHRlciBmaXRzIHRoYXQgZGVzY3JpcHRpb24/[Qq]

[c]IEo=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBdCBKLCB0aGUgbWVtYnJhbmUgaXMgYXQgYSBwaGFzZSBjYWxsZWQgYSBoeXBlcnBvbGFyaXphdGlvbiwgb3IgdW5kZXJzaG9vdC7CoERlcG9sYXJpemF0aW9uIGlzIHdoZW4gdGhlIG1lbWJyYW5lIGlzIHNoaWZ0aW5nIGZyb20gaXRzIG5lZ2F0aXZlIHJlc3RpbmcgcG90ZW50aWFsIHRvIHBvc2l0aXZlLiBXaGF0IGxldHRlciBmaXRzIHRoYXQgZGVzY3JpcHRpb24/[Qq]

[c]IEs=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBdCBLLCB0aGUgbWVtYnJhbmUgcG90ZW50aWFsIGhhcyBiZWVuIHJlc3RvcmVkLsKgRGVwb2xhcml6YXRpb24gaXMgd2hlbiB0aGUgbWVtYnJhbmUgaXMgc2hpZnRpbmcgZnJvbSBpdHMgbmVnYXRpdmUgcmVzdGluZyBwb3RlbnRpYWwgdG8gcG9zaXRpdmUuIFdoYXQgbGV0dGVyIGZpdHMgdGhhdCBkZXNjcmlwdGlvbj8=[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Animal_Systems” dataset_id=”144Qs|931eda4671334″ question_number=”120″] In a physiology laboratory exercise, students place electrodes at a point on a nerve cell of a living organism. The nerve cell is then stimulated, resulting in the graph below.

The refractory period, during which the membrane can’t respond to further stimulation, is represented by point

[c]IEY=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBGIHJlcHJlc2VudHMgdGhlIG1lbWJyYW5lIHdoZW4gaXQmIzgyMTc7cyBkZXBvbGFyaXppbmcuIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQuIFRoZSByZWZyYWN0b3J5IHBlcmlvZCBpcyB3aGVuIHRoZSBtZW1icmFuZSBpcyBoeXBlcnBvbGFyaXplZCwgYW5kIGV2ZW4gbW9yZSBuZWdhdGl2ZSB0aGFuIGl0IGlzIGR1cmluZyB0aGUgcmVzdGluZyBwb3RlbnRpYWwu[Qq]

[c]IEc=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBHIHJlcHJlc2VudHMgdGhlIGhlaWdodCBvZiB0aGUgYWN0aW9uIHBvdGVudGlhbCwgd2hlbiB0aGUgbWVtYnJhbmUgaXMgYXQgaXRzIG1heGltdW0gZGVwb2xhcml6YXRpb24uwqBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50LiBUaGUgcmVmcmFjdG9yeSBwZXJpb2QgaXMgd2hlbiB0aGUgbWVtYnJhbmUgaXMgaHlwZXJwb2xhcml6ZWQsIGFuZCBldmVuIG1vcmUgbmVnYXRpdmUgdGhhbiBpdCBpcyBkdXJpbmcgdGhlIHJlc3RpbmcgcG90ZW50aWFsLg==[Qq]

[c]IEg=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIIHNob3dzIHdoZW4gdGhlIG1lbWJyYW5lIGlzIHJlcG9sYXJpemluZyAoYmVjb21pbmcgbmVnYXRpdmUgYWdhaW4pLsKgSGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGEgaGludC4gVGhlIHJlZnJhY3RvcnkgcGVyaW9kIGlzIHdoZW4gdGhlIG1lbWJyYW5lIGlzIGh5cGVycG9sYXJpemVkLCBhbmQgZXZlbiBtb3JlIG5lZ2F0aXZlIHRoYW4gaXQgaXMgZHVyaW5nIHRoZSByZXN0aW5nIHBvdGVudGlhbC4=[Qq]

[c]IE o=[Qq]

[f]IEdvb2Qgam9iLiBKIHNob3dzIHRoZSByZWZyYWN0b3J5IHBlcmlvZC4=[Qq]

[c]IEs=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBLIHNob3dzIHRoZSBtZW1icmFuZSBhZnRlciBpdCBoYXMgcmVzdG9yZWQgaXRzZWxmIHRvIGl0cyByZXN0aW5nIHBvdGVudGlhbC7CoEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQuIFRoZSByZWZyYWN0b3J5IHBlcmlvZCBpcyB3aGVuIHRoZSBtZW1icmFuZSBpcyBoeXBlcnBvbGFyaXplZCwgYW5kIGV2ZW4gbW9yZSBuZWdhdGl2ZSB0aGFuIGl0IGlzIGR1cmluZyB0aGUgcmVzdGluZyBwb3RlbnRpYWwu[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Animal_Systems” dataset_id=”144Qs|9310e1ff19334″ question_number=”121″] The diagram shows a ball approaching the eye, and a representation of part of the pathway of an automatic blinking response.

Which number below represents a sensory neuron?

[c]IDE=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAxIHNob3dzIHRoZSBtdXNjbGUgdGhhdCYjODIxNztzIGdvaW5nIHRvIGNvbnRyYWN0IHNvIHRoYXQgdGhlIGV5ZWxpZCB3aWxsIGNsb3NlICh0aGUgZmluYWwgcGFydCBvZiB0aGlzIHJlZmxleCkuIFRoZSBzZW5zb3J5IG5ldXJvbiBpcyB0YWtpbmcgaW5mb3JtYXRpb24gaW4sIGFuZCBicmluZ2luZyBpdCB0byB0aGUgbW90b3IgbmV1cm9uLiBUbyBmaW5kIHRoZSBzZW5zb3J5IG5ldXJvbiwgZmluZCB0aGUgJiM4MjIwO3dpcmUmIzgyMjE7IHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBicmluZ2luZyBpbmZvcm1hdGlvbiBmcm9tIHRoZSBleWUgdG8gdGhlIGJyYWluLg==[Qq]

[c]IDI=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAyIHNob3dzIGEgbW90b3IgbmV1cm9uLCBicmluZ2luZyBhIG1lc3NhZ2UgdG8gdGhlIG11c2NsZSB0aGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgYXR0YWNoZWQgdG8gdGhlIGV5ZWxpZC7CoFRoZSBzZW5zb3J5IG5ldXJvbiBpcyB0YWtpbmcgaW5mb3JtYXRpb24gaW4sIGFuZCBicmluZ2luZyBpdCB0byB0aGUgbW90b3IgbmV1cm9uLiBUbyBmaW5kIHRoZSBzZW5zb3J5IG5ldXJvbiwgZmluZCB0aGUgJiM4MjIwO3dpcmUmIzgyMjE7IHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBicmluZ2luZyBpbmZvcm1hdGlvbiBmcm9tIHRoZSBleWUgdG8gdGhlIGJyYWluLg==[Qq]

[c]IDM=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAzIGlzIHRoZSBzeW5hcHNlIGJldHdlZW4gdGhlIHNlbnNvcnkgbmV1cm9uIGFuZCB0aGUgbW90b3IgbmV1cm9uLsKgVGhlIHNlbnNvcnkgbmV1cm9uIGlzIHRha2luZyBpbmZvcm1hdGlvbiBpbiwgYW5kIGJyaW5naW5nIGl0IHRvIHRoZSBtb3RvciBuZXVyb24uIFRvIGZpbmQgdGhlIHNlbnNvcnkgbmV1cm9uLCBmaW5kIHRoZSAmIzgyMjA7d2lyZSYjODIyMTsgdGhhdCYjODIxNztzIGJyaW5naW5nIGluZm9ybWF0aW9uIGZyb20gdGhlIGV5ZSB0byB0aGUgYnJhaW4u[Qq]

[c]ID Q=[Qq]

[f]IENvcnJlY3QhIDQgaXMgdGhlIHNlbnNvcnkgbmV1cm9uLg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Animal_Systems” dataset_id=”144Qs|9302c47702f34″ question_number=”122″] The diagram shows a ball approaching the eye, and a representation of part of the pathway of an automatic blinking response.

Which number below represents a motor neuron?

[c]IDE=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAxIHNob3dzIHRoZSBtdXNjbGUgdGhhdCYjODIxNztzIGdvaW5nIHRvIGNvbnRyYWN0IHNvIHRoYXQgdGhlIGV5ZWxpZCB3aWxsIGNsb3NlICh0aGUgZmluYWwgcGFydCBvZiB0aGlzIHJlZmxleCkuIFRoZSBtb3RvciBuZXVyb24gYnJpbmdzIHRoZSBpbXB1bHNlIHRvIGNvbnRyYWN0IHRvIHRoaXMgbXVzY2xlLg==[Qq]

[c]ID I=[Qq]

[f]IE5pY2Ugam9iLiBOdW1iZXIgMiBpcyB0aGUgbW90b3IgbmV1cm9uLg==[Qq]

[c]IDM=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAzIGlzIHRoZSBzeW5hcHNlIGJldHdlZW4gdGhlIHNlbnNvcnkgbmV1cm9uIGFuZCB0aGUgbW90b3IgbmV1cm9uLsKgVGhlIG1vdG9yIG5ldXJvbiBicmluZ3MgdGhlIGltcHVsc2UgdG8gY29udHJhY3QgdG8gdGhlIG11c2NsZSB0aGF0IGNsb3NlcyB0aGUgZXllbGlkICh3aGljaCBpcyBzaG93biBhdCAxKQ==[Qq]

[c]IDQ=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiA0IGlzIHRoZSBzZW5zb3J5IG5ldXJvbi7CoFRoZSBtb3RvciBuZXVyb24gYnJpbmdzIHRoZSBpbXB1bHNlIHRvIGNvbnRyYWN0IHRvIHRoZSBtdXNjbGUgdGhhdCBjbG9zZXMgdGhlIGV5ZWxpZCAod2hpY2ggaXMgc2hvd24gYXQgMSk=[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Animal_Systems” dataset_id=”144Qs|92f4a6eeecb34″ question_number=”123″] The diagram shows a ball approaching the eye, and a representation of part of the pathway of an automatic blinking response.

Which number below represents a synapse?

[c]IDE=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAxIHNob3dzIHRoZSBtdXNjbGUgdGhhdCYjODIxNztzIGdvaW5nIHRvIGNvbnRyYWN0IHNvIHRoYXQgdGhlIGV5ZWxpZCB3aWxsIGNsb3NlICh0aGUgZmluYWwgcGFydCBvZiB0aGlzIHJlZmxleCkuwqBUaGUgc3luYXBzZSBpcyB0aGUgY29ubmVjdGlvbiBiZXR3ZWVuIHRoZSBzZW5zb3J5IG5ldXJvbiAod2hpY2ggYnJpbmdzIGluZm9ybWF0aW9uIGluKSBhbmQgdGhlIG1vdG9yIG5ldXJvbiAod2hpY2ggc2VuZHMgdGhlIGltcHVsc2Ugb3V0KS4=[Qq]

[c]IDI=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAyIGlzIGEgbW90b3IgbmV1cm9uLiBUaGUgc3luYXBzZSBpcyB0aGUgY29ubmVjdGlvbiBiZXR3ZWVuIHRoZSBzZW5zb3J5IG5ldXJvbiAod2hpY2ggYnJpbmdzIGluZm9ybWF0aW9uIGluKSBhbmQgdGhlIG1vdG9yIG5ldXJvbiAod2hpY2ggc2VuZHMgdGhlIGltcHVsc2Ugb3V0KS4=[Qq]

[c]ID M=[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gMyBpcyB0aGUgc3luYXBzZSBiZXR3ZWVuIHRoZSBzZW5zb3J5IG5ldXJvbiBhbmQgdGhlIG1vdG9yIG5ldXJvbi4=[Qq]

[c]IDQ=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLsKgNCBpcyB0aGUgc2Vuc29yeSBuZXVyb24uwqBUaGUgc3luYXBzZSBpcyB0aGUgY29ubmVjdGlvbiBiZXR3ZWVuIHRoZSBzZW5zb3J5IG5ldXJvbiAod2hpY2ggYnJpbmdzIGluZm9ybWF0aW9uIGluKSBhbmQgdGhlIG1vdG9yIG5ldXJvbiAod2hpY2ggc2VuZHMgdGhlIGltcHVsc2Ugb3V0KS4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Animal_Systems” dataset_id=”144Qs|92e68966d6734″ question_number=”124″] The diagram shows a ball approaching the eye, and a representation of part of the pathway of an automatic blinking response.

Which number below represents an effector (such as a muscle)?

[c]ID E=[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4xIHNob3dzIHRoZSBtdXNjbGUgdGhhdCYjODIxNztzIGdvaW5nIHRvIGNvbnRyYWN0IHNvIHRoYXQgdGhlIGV5ZWxpZCB3aWxsIGNsb3NlICh0aGUgZmluYWwgcGFydCBvZiB0aGlzIHJlZmxleCku[Qq]

[c]IDI=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAyIGlzIHRoZSBtb3RvciBuZXVyb24uIFRvIGZpbmQgdGhlIGVmZmVjdG9yLCBmaW5kIHRoZSBtdXNjbGUgY2VsbCBhdCB0aGUgZW5kIG9mIHRoZSBtb3RvciBuZXVyb24gdGhhdCYjODIxNztzIGdvaW5nIHRvIGNvbnRyYWN0LCBjbG9zaW5nIHRoZSBleWVsaWQgKHRoZSBmaW5hbCBtb3ZlIGluIHRoaXMgcmVmbGV4IGFyYyku[Qq]

[c]IDM=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAzIGlzIHRoZSBzeW5hcHNlIGJldHdlZW4gdGhlIHNlbnNvcnkgYW5kIG1vdG9yIG5ldXJvbnMuwqBUbyBmaW5kIHRoZSBlZmZlY3RvciwgZmluZCB0aGUgbXVzY2xlIGNlbGwgYXQgdGhlIGVuZCBvZiB0aGUgbW90b3IgbmV1cm9uIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBnb2luZyB0byBjb250cmFjdCwgY2xvc2luZyB0aGUgZXllbGlkICh0aGUgZmluYWwgbW92ZSBpbiB0aGlzIHJlZmxleCBhcmMpLg==[Qq]

[c]IDQ=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiA0IGlzIHRoZSBzZW5zb3J5IG5ldXJvbi7CoFRvIGZpbmQgdGhlIGVmZmVjdG9yLCBmaW5kIHRoZSBtdXNjbGUgY2VsbCBhdCB0aGUgZW5kIG9mIHRoZSBtb3RvciBuZXVyb24gdGhhdCYjODIxNztzIGdvaW5nIHRvIGNvbnRyYWN0LCBjbG9zaW5nIHRoZSBleWVsaWQgKHRoZSBmaW5hbCBtb3ZlIGluIHRoaXMgcmVmbGV4IGFyYyku[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Animal_Systems” dataset_id=”144Qs|92d78c5a4ab34″ question_number=”125″] In the diagram below, the most likely site for an action potential to be initiated is

[c]IDE=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAxIHNob3dzIGNhbGNpdW0gaW9ucyBkaWZmdXNpbmcgaW50byB0aGUgcHJlLXN5bmFwdGljIG5ldXJvbiAodGhlIG5ldXJvbiBiZWZvcmUgdGhlIHN5bmFwc2UpLiBUaGUgYWN0aW9uIHBvdGVudGlhbCBpcyBnb2luZyB0byBiZSBpbml0aWF0ZWQgaW4gdGhlIHBvc3Qtc3luYXB0aWMgbmV1cm9uLg==[Qq]

[c]IDM=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAzIGlzIGEgdmVzaWNsZSBpbiB0aGUgcHJlLXN5bmFwdGljIG5ldXJvbi7CoFRoZSBhY3Rpb24gcG90ZW50aWFsIGlzIGdvaW5nIHRvIGJlIGluaXRpYXRlZCBpbiB0aGUgcG9zdC1zeW5hcHRpYyBuZXVyb24u[Qq]

[c]IDU=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiA1IGlzIGEgcmVjZXB0b3IgaW4gdGhlIHBvc3Qtc3luYXB0aWMgbmV1cm9uLiBUaGUgYWN0aW9uIHBvdGVudGlhbCBpcyBnb2luZyB0byBiZSBpbml0aWF0ZWQgdmVyeSBjbG9zZSBieSwgYW5kIGFzIGEgcmVzdWx0IG9mIHRoYXQgcmVjZXB0b3IgYmluZGluZyB3aXRoIG5ldXJvdHJhbnNtaXR0ZXIuIEZpbmQgYW5vdGhlciBzcG90IG9uIHRoZSBwcmVzeW5hcHRpYyBuZXVyb24u[Qq]

[c]ID k=[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gSWYgdGhlIG5ldXJvdHJhbnNtaXR0ZXImIzgyMTc7cyBlZmZlY3QgaXMgdG8gY2F1c2UgYSBkZXBvbGFyaXphdGlvbiBzdWZmaWNpZW50IHRvIGV4Y2VlZCB0aGUgdGhyZXNob2xkIHBvdGVudGlhbCwgdGhlbiBhbiBhY3Rpb24gcG90ZW50aWFsIHdpbGwgYmUgaW50aXRpYXRlZCBhbG9uZyB0aGUgbWVtYnJhbmUgb2YgdGhlIHBvc3Qtc3luYXB0aWMgbmV1cm9uLg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Animal_Systems” dataset_id=”144Qs|92c96ed234734″ question_number=”126″] In the diagram below, a receptor is shown at

[c]IDE=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAxIHNob3dzIGNhbGNpdW0gaW9ucyBkaWZmdXNpbmcgaW50byB0aGUgcHJlLXN5bmFwdGljIG5ldXJvbiAodGhlIG5ldXJvbiBiZWZvcmUgdGhlIHN5bmFwc2UpLiBUaGUgcmVjZXB0b3IgaXMgZm91bmQgaW4gdGhlIHBvc3Qtc3luYXB0aWMgbmV1cm9uLCB3aGVyZSBpdCBiaW5kcyB3aXRoIHRoZSBuZXVyb3RyYW5zbWl0dGVyIChzaG93biBhdCA0KS4=[Qq]

[c]IDM=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAzIGlzIGEgdmVzaWNsZSBjb250YWluaW5nIG5ldXJvdHJhbnNtaXR0ZXIuwqBUaGUgcmVjZXB0b3IgaXMgZm91bmQgaW4gdGhlIHBvc3Qtc3luYXB0aWMgbmV1cm9uLCB3aGVyZSBpdCBiaW5kcyB3aXRoIHRoZSBuZXVyb3RyYW5zbWl0dGVyIChzaG93biBhdCA0KS4=[Qq]

[c]ID U=[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gNSBpcyB0aGUgcmVjZXB0b3Iu[Qq]

[c]IDk=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiA5IGlzIHRoZSBtZW1icmFuZSBvZiB0aGUgcG9zdC1zeW5hcHRpYyBuZXVyb24uwqBUaGUgcmVjZXB0b3IgaXMgYWxzbyBmb3VuZCBpbiB0aGUgcG9zdC1zeW5hcHRpYyBuZXVyb24sIHdoZXJlIGl0IGJpbmRzIHdpdGggdGhlIG5ldXJvdHJhbnNtaXR0ZXIgKHNob3duIGF0IDQpLg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Animal_Systems” dataset_id=”144Qs|92bb514a1e334″ question_number=”127″] In the diagram below, a neurotransmitter is shown at

[c]IDE=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAxIHNob3dzIGNhbGNpdW0gaW9ucyBkaWZmdXNpbmcgaW50byB0aGUgcHJlLXN5bmFwdGljIG5ldXJvbiAodGhlIG5ldXJvbiBiZWZvcmUgdGhlIHN5bmFwc2UpLiBUbyBmaW5kIHRoZSBuZXVyb3RyYW5zbWl0dGVyLCBmaW5kIHRoZSBtb2xlY3VsZSB0aGF0IG1vdmVzIGZyb20gdGhlIHByZS1zeW5hcHRpYyBuZXVyb24sIHRocm91Z2ggdGhlIHN5bmFwc2UsIGFuZCB0aGVuIGJpbmRzIHdpdGggYSByZWNlcHRvciBpbiB0aGUgcG9zdC1zeW5hcHRpYyBuZXVyb24u[Qq]

[c]ID Q=[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCEgNCBpcyB0aGUgbmV1cm90cmFuc21pdHRlci4=[Qq]

[c]IDU=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiA1IGlzIHRoZSByZWNlcHRvciBpbiB0aGUgcG9zdC1zeW5hcHRpYyBuZXVyb24uwqBUbyBmaW5kIHRoZSBuZXVyb3RyYW5zbWl0dGVyLCBmaW5kIHRoZSBtb2xlY3VsZSB0aGF0IG1vdmVzIGZyb20gdGhlIHByZS1zeW5hcHRpYyBuZXVyb24sIHRocm91Z2ggdGhlIHN5bmFwc2UsIGFuZCB0aGVuIGJpbmRzIHdpdGggYSByZWNlcHRvciBpbiB0aGUgcG9zdC1zeW5hcHRpYyBuZXVyb24u[Qq]

[c]IDY=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLCBidXQgeW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIHZlcnkgY2xvc2UuIDYgaXMgYW4gZW56eW1lIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBkZWdyYWRpbmcgdGhlIG5ldXJvdHJhbnNtaXR0ZXIuwqBUbyBmaW5kIHRoZSBuZXVyb3RyYW5zbWl0dGVyLCBpZGVudGlmeSB0aGUgbW9sZWN1bGUgdGhhdCBtb3ZlcyBmcm9tIHRoZSBwcmUtc3luYXB0aWMgbmV1cm9uLCB0aHJvdWdoIHRoZSBzeW5hcHNlLCBhbmQgdGhlbiBiaW5kcyB3aXRoIGEgcmVjZXB0b3IgaW4gdGhlIHBvc3Qtc3luYXB0aWMgbmV1cm9uLg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Animal_Systems” dataset_id=”144Qs|92ad0e8149b34″ question_number=”128″] In the diagram below, an enzyme degrading a neurotransmitter is shown at

[c]IDE=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAxIHNob3dzIGNhbGNpdW0gaW9ucyBkaWZmdXNpbmcgaW50byB0aGUgcHJlLXN5bmFwdGljIG5ldXJvbiAodGhlIG5ldXJvbiBiZWZvcmUgdGhlIHN5bmFwc2UpLiBUbyBmaW5kIHRoZSBlbnp5bWUgdGhhdCBkZWdyYWRlcyB0aGUgbmV1cm90cmFuc21pdHRlciwgeW91IGZpcnN0IGhhdmUgdG8gbG9jYXRlIHRoZSBuZXVyb3RyYW5zbWl0dGVyIGl0c2VsZi4gVG8gZG8gdGhhdCwgZmluZCB0aGUgbW9sZWN1bGUgdGhhdCBiaW5kcyB3aXRoIHRoZSByZWNlcHRvciBpbiB0aGUgcG9zdC1zeW5hcHRpYyBuZXVyb24gKHNob3duIGF0IDUp[Qq]

[c]IDQ=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLCBidXQgeW91ciB2ZXJ5IGNsb3NlLiA0IGlzIHRoZSBuZXVyb3RyYW5zbWl0dGVyLiBUYWtlIGFub3RoZXIgbG9vayBhdCB0aGUgZGlhZ3JhbSwgYW5kIGZpbmQgdGhlIGVuenltZSB0aGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgYnJlYWtpbmcgdGhpcyBuZXVyb3RyYW5zbWl0dGVyIGludG8gdHdvIGZyYWdtZW50cy4=[Qq]

[c]IDU=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiA1IGlzIGEgcmVjZXB0b3IgaW4gdGhlIHBvc3Qtc3luYXB0aWMgbmV1cm9uLsKgVG8gZmluZCB0aGUgZW56eW1lIHRoYXQgZGVncmFkZXMgdGhlIG5ldXJvdHJhbnNtaXR0ZXIsIHlvdSBmaXJzdCBoYXZlIHRvIGxvY2F0ZSB0aGUgbmV1cm90cmFuc21pdHRlciBpdHNlbGYuIFRvIGRvIHRoYXQsIGZpbmQgdGhlIG1vbGVjdWxlIHRoYXQgYmluZHMgd2l0aCB0aGlzIHJlY2VwdG9yLg==[Qq]

[c]ID Y=[Qq]

[f]IE1hcnZlbG91cyEgNiBpcyB0aGUgZW56eW1lIHRoYXQgYnJlYWtzIGRvd24gdGhlIG5ldXJvdHJhbnNtaXR0ZXIu[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Animal_Systems” dataset_id=”144Qs|929ef0f933734″ question_number=”129″] When an action potential arrives at a presynaptic cell, something causes the presynaptic cell to release neurotransmitter. In the diagram below, that something is represented by

[c]ID E=[Qq]

[f]IE5pY2Ugam9iLiBXaGVuIHRoZSBhY3Rpb24gcG90ZW50aWFsIGFycml2ZXMgYXQgdGhlIGF4b24mIzgyMTc7cyB0aXAsIHZvbHRhZ2UgZ2F0ZWQgY2FsY2l1bSBjaGFubmVscyBvcGVuIHVwLCBhbGxvd2luZyBjYWxjaXVtIHRvIGZsb3cgaW50byB0aGUgY2VsbC4gVGhlc2UgY2FsY2l1bSBpb25zLCBpbiB0dXJuLCBpbmR1Y2UgdmVzaWNsZXMgZmlsbGVkIHdpdGggbmV1cm90cmFuc21pdHRlciB0byBkdW1wIHRoZWlyIGNvbnRlbnRzIGludG8gdGhlIHN5bmFwc2Uu[Qq]

[c]IDI=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAyIHJlcHJlc2VudHMgdGhlIGF4b24gb2YgdGhlIHByZS1zeW5hcHRpYyBuZXVyb24uIFlvdSYjODIxNztyZSBsb29raW5nIGZvciBzb21ldGhpbmcgaW4gdGhlIHByZS1zeW5hcHRpYyBuZXVyb24gdGhhdCB3aWxsIGluZHVjZSB2ZXNpY2xlcyBmaWxsZWQgd2l0aCBuZXVyb3RyYW5zbWl0dGVyIHRvIGR1bXAgdGhhdCBuZXVyb3RyYW5zbWl0dGVyIGludG8gdGhlIHN5bmFwc2Uu[Qq]

[c]IDM=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAzIHJlcHJlc2VudHMgYSB2ZXNpY2xlIGZpbGxlZCB3aXRoIG5ldXJvdHJhbnNtaXR0ZXIuwqBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgbG9va2luZyBmb3Igc29tZXRoaW5nIGluIHRoZSBwcmUtc3luYXB0aWMgbmV1cm9uIHRoYXQgd2lsbCBpbmR1Y2UgdGhhdCB2ZXNpY2xlIHRvIGR1bXAgdGhhdCBuZXVyb3RyYW5zbWl0dGVyIGludG8gdGhlIHN5bmFwc2Uu[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Biochemistry” dataset_id=”144Qs|92903e6e24334″ question_number=”130″] Actin filaments (which make up a key part of the cytoskeleton, are capable of growing at either end. The “plus” end (also called the “barbed end”) grows faster, while the “minus” end (also called the “pointed end”) grows more slowly.

The figure below shows the growth rates at the plus and minus ends of actin filaments as a function of actin monomer concentration.

Actin filaments of defined length are added to a solution of actin monomers at the concentration indicated as A, B, C, D, or E. Which concentration ofthe solution will let you grow actin filaments at the plus end, but not the minus end?

[c]IENvbmNlbnRyYXRpb24gYXQgQSBvciBC[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IENvbmNlbnRyYXRpb24gYXQgQiBvciBD[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IENvbmNlbnRyYXRp b24gYXQgQyBvciBE[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gQXQgdGhlc2UgY29uY2VudHJhdGlvbnMsIHRoZSBmaWxhbWVudCB3aWxsIGluY3JlYXNlIGluIHNpemUgb24gdGhlIHBsdXMgZW5kLCBidXQgZWl0aGVyIGRlY3JlYXNlIGluIHNpemUgKHBvaW50IEMpIG9yIHN0YXkgdGhlIHNhbWUgaW4gc2l6ZSAocG9pbnQgRCkgb24gdGhlIG1pbnVzIGVuZC4=[Qq]

[c]IENvbmNlbnRyYXRpb24gYXQgRCBvciBF[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Biochemistry” dataset_id=”144Qs|9281d66491734″ question_number=”131″] As applied to proteins, which of the following best describes “denaturation?”

[c]IGNsZWF2aW5nIHBlcHRpZGUgYm9uZHM=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBDbGVhdmluZyBwZXB0aWRlIGJvbmRzIGlzIGJlc3QgZGVzY3JpYmVkIGFzIHByb3RlaW4gZGlnZXN0aW9uIG9yIGRlZ3JhZGF0aW9uLiBEZW5hdHVyYXRpb24gaXMgbXVjaCBsZXNzIHNldmVyZSBhbmQgcGVybWFuZW50Lg==[Qq]

[c]IGNvdmFsZW50bHkgbW9kaWZ5aW5nIGEgcHJvdGVpbg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBDb3ZhbGVudCBtb2RpZmljYXRpb24gd291bGQgY29uc3RpdHV0ZSBhIGNoZW1pY2FsIGNoYW5nZSB0byB0aGUgcHJvdGVpbiwgYW5kIGlzIG11Y2ggbW9yZSBkcmFzdGljIHRoYW4gd2hhdCBoYXBwZW5zIGR1cmluZyBkZW5hdHVyYXRpb24u[Qq]

[c]IGEgY2hhbmdpbmcgYSBwcm90ZWluJiM4 MjE3O3MgdGVydGlhcnkgc3RydWN0dXJl[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gRGVuYXR1cmF0aW9uIGlzIGEgY2hhbmdlIGluIHByb3RlaW4gc2hhcGUgYnJvdWdodCBhYm91dCBieSBhIGNoYW5nZSBpbiBhIHByb3RlaW4mIzgyMTc7cyBlbnZpcm9ubWVudC4gT2Z0ZW4sIHRoZXNlIGNoYW5nZXMgaW52b2x2ZSBkaXNydXB0aW9uIG9mIHRlcnRpYXJ5IGxldmVsIGludGVyYWN0aW9ucyBiZXR3ZWVuIGFtaW5vIGFjaWRzLg==[Qq]

[c]IGEgY2hhbmdpbmcgYSBwcm90ZWluJiM4MjE3O3MgdGhlIHByaW1hcnkgc3RydWN0dXJl[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBIGNoYW5nZSBpbiBhIHByb3RlaW4mIzgyMTc7cyBwcmltYXJ5IHN0cnVjdHVyZSBpcyBhIGZ1bmRhbWVudGFsIHNoaWZ0IGluIGEgcHJvdGVpbnMgaWRlbnRpZnksIGNoZW1pc3RyeSwgYW5kIHN0cnVjdHVyZS4gRGVuYXR1cmF0aW9uIGlzIG9mdGVuIHRlbXBvcmFyeSwgYW5kIGludm9sdmUgYSBtdWNoIGxlc3MgZHJhc3RpYyBsZXZlbCBvZiBjaGFuZ2Uu[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Biochemistry” dataset_id=”144Qs|9273491a40734″ question_number=”132″] People with chronic high blood pressure have elevated blood levels of ACE (Angiotensin-converting enzyme). ACE acts on the polypeptide Angiotensin I to produce Angiotensin II, which as the effect of raising blood-pressure.

The diagram below represents the active site of ACE. The “+” sign represents positively charged regions in the active site.

A pharmaceutical company is trying to develop a drug to lower blood pressure. As part of this effort, a range of drugs was designed and manufactured. A sample of the molecular shape of each is shown below. Notice the “+” and “-” signs, which represent positively and negatively charged regions in the molecules making up the candidate drugs.

Which drug is likely to be the most effective in preventingexcessive high blood pressure?

[c]IERydWcgQQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBXaGF0IHlvdSYjODIxNztyZSBsb29raW5nIGZvciBpcyBhIGRydWcgd2l0aCBhIHNoYXBlIHRoYXQgd2lsbCBlbmFibGUgaXQgdG8gYWN0IGFzIGEgY29tcGV0aXRpdmUgaW5oaWJpdG9yIG9mIEFDRS4gVG8gZG8gdGhhdCwgeW91JiM4MjE3O2xsIG5lZWQgYSBkcnVnIGNhbmRpZGF0ZSB3aXRoIGEgc2hhcGUgYW5kIGNoYXJnZSB0aGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgbW9zdCBjb21wbGVtZW50YXJ5IHRvIEFDRS4gVGFrZSBhIGxvb2sgYXQgdGhlIGZvdXIgZHJ1ZyBjYW5kaWRhdGVzLCBhbmQgZmluZCB0aGUgb25lIHRoYXQgYmVzdCBmaXRzIHRoYXQgZGVzY3JpcHRpb24u[Qq]

[c]IERydW cgQg==[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudDogRHJ1ZyBCIGhhcyBhIGNoYXJnZSBhbmQgc2hhcGUgdGhhdCBiZXN0IGNvbXBsZW1lbnRzIEFDRSZndDs=[Qq]

[c]IERydWcgQw==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBXaGF0IHlvdSYjODIxNztyZSBsb29raW5nIGZvciBpcyBhIGRydWcgd2l0aCBhIHNoYXBlIHRoYXQgd2lsbCBlbmFibGUgaXQgdG8gYWN0IGFzIGEgY29tcGV0aXRpdmUgaW5oaWJpdG9yIG9mIEFDRS4gVG8gZG8gdGhhdCwgeW91JiM4MjE3O2xsIG5lZWQgYSBkcnVnIGNhbmRpZGF0ZSB3aXRoIGEgc2hhcGUgYW5kIGNoYXJnZSB0aGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgbW9zdCBjb21wbGVtZW50YXJ5IHRvIEFDRS4gVGFrZSBhIGxvb2sgYXQgdGhlIGZvdXIgZHJ1ZyBjYW5kaWRhdGVzLCBhbmQgZmluZCB0aGUgb25lIHRoYXQgYmVzdCBmaXRzIHRoYXQgZGVzY3JpcHRpb24u[Qq]

[c]IERydWcgRA==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLCBidXQgeW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIGNsb3NlLiBXaGF0IHlvdSYjODIxNztyZSBsb29raW5nIGZvciBpcyBhIGRydWcgd2l0aCBhIHNoYXBlIHRoYXQgd2lsbCBlbmFibGUgaXQgdG8gYWN0IGFzIGEgY29tcGV0aXRpdmUgaW5oaWJpdG9yIG9mIEFDRS4gVG8gZG8gdGhhdCwgeW91JiM4MjE3O2xsIG5lZWQgYSBkcnVnIGNhbmRpZGF0ZSB3aXRoIGEgc2hhcGUgYW5kIGNoYXJnZSB0aGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgbW9zdCBjb21wbGVtZW50YXJ5IHRvIEFDRS4gWW91JiM4MjE3O3ZlIGNob3NlbiBhIGdvb2Qgc2hhcGUsIGJ1dCB5b3UgbmVlZCB0byBiZSBtb3JlIGNhcmVmdWwgYWJvdXQgdGhlIGNoYXJnZS4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Plant_Systems” dataset_id=”144Qs|9264968f31334″ question_number=”133″] The graph on the right below shows the amount of sunlight received by various levels of a forest on a sunny summer’s day. For example, at noon, the tallest trees receive 100% of full sunlight. By contrast, the bushes receive between about 12% and 50% of full sunlight (depending on their height and position). Note that the light curve experienced by the layers is a triangle, although a more flattened triangle for the lower layers.

The graph on the left shows the plants’ response to light, as shown by their rate of photosynthesis.

Using the average light intensity for their level between about 10 am and 2pm, what percent of maximum photosynthesis would the tallest trees have? What percent would the bushes have?

[c]IDc1JSBhbmQgOSU=[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IDUwJSBhbmQgOSU=[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IDUwJSBhbmQgNSU=[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IDEwMCUgYW 5kIDYwJQ==[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCEgQmV0d2VlbiAxMCBhbmQgMiBwbSwgdGhlIHRhbGxlc3QgdHJlZXMgd2lsbCBiZSBwZXJmb3JtaW5nIDEwMCUgb2YgdGhlIHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzIHRoYXQgdGhleSBjYW4gcGVyZm9ybSwgYW5kIHRoZSBidXNoZXMgd2lsbCBiZSBhdCBhYm91dCA2MCUu[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Animal_Systems” dataset_id=”144Qs|92560944e0334″ question_number=”134″] As shown in the diagram below, eyestalk retraction in crabs is controlled by a sensory-motor reflex. Note that the sensory and inhibitory neurons synapse with the axon of the motor neuron.

Based on the wiring of this reflex, which of the following is most likely?

[c]IHJldHJhY3Rpb24gb2YgdGhlIGV5ZXN0YWxrIHdoZW4gdGhlIHNlbnNvcnkgYW5kIGluaGliaXRvcnkgbmVydmVzIGFyZSBzdGltdWxhdGVkIGF0IHRoZSBzYW1lIHRpbWUgYXQgbG9jYXRpb25zIFMgYW5kIFQsIHJlc3BlY3RpdmVseS4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUga2V5IGNvbmNlcHQgaGVyZSBpcyBzdW1tYXRpb246IHBvc3Qgc3luYXB0aWMgbmV1cm9ucyBhcmUgZ29pbmcgdG8gYWRkIHRvZ2V0aGVyIHRoZWlyIGlucHV0IGluIG9yZGVyIHRvIGNvbXB1dGUgYSByZXNwb25zZS4gSWYgdGhlIGluaGliaXRvcnkgbmVydmUgaXMgc3RpbXVsYXRlZCBhdCB0aGUgc2FtZSB0aW1lIGFzIHRoZSBzZW5zb3J5IG5lcnZlLCB0aGVuIHRoZSB0d28gaW5wdXRzIHdpbGwgY2FuY2VsIGVhY2ggb3RoZXIgb3V0LiBUaGUgcmVzdWx0IGlzIHRoYXQgdGhlIG1vdG9yIG5ldXJvbiB3b24mIzgyMTc7dCBmaXJlIGFuIGltcHVsc2UsIGFuZCB0aGUgZXllc3RhbGsgd29uJiM4MjE3O3QgY29udHJhY3Qu[Qq]

[c]IHJldHJhY3Rpb24gb2YgdGhlIGV5ZXN0YWxrIGlmIH RoZSBzZW5zb3J5IGhhaXIgaXMgc3RpbXVsYXRlZC4=[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gQmFzZWQgb24gdGhlIHdpcmluZyBvZiB0aGlzIHJlZmxleCwgc3RpbXVsYXRpb24gb2YgdGhlIHNlbnNvcnkgaGFpciBzaG91bGQgc3RpbXVsYXRlIHRoZSBtb3RvciBuZXVyb24sIHdoaWNoIHNob3VsZCBmaXJlIG9mZiBhbiBpbXB1bHNlIHRoYXQgd2lsbCByZXN1bHQgaW4gY29udHJhY3Rpb24gb2YgdGhlIHJldHJhY3RvciBtdXNjbGUu[Qq]

[c]IHJldHJhY3Rpb24gb2YgdGhlIGV5ZXN0YWxrIGlmIHRoZSBpbmhpYml0b3J5IG5ldXJvbiBpcyBzdGltdWxhdGVkIGFmdGVyIGN1dHRpbmcgdGhlIHNlbnNvcnkgbmVydmVzIGF0IHNpdGUgSi4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBJZiB0aGUgc2Vuc29yeSBuZXJ2ZSBpcyBjdXQgYXQgc2l0ZSBKLCB0aGVuIG5vIGV4Y2l0YXRvcnkgaW1wdWxzZSB3aWxsIHJlYWNoIHRoZSBtb3RvciBuZXVyb24uIFRoZSBpbmhpYml0b3J5IG5ldXJvbiBzdGlsbCBzeW5hcHNlcyB3aXRoIHRoZSBtb3RvciBuZXVyb24sIGJ1dCBpdHMgZWZmZWN0IG9uIHRoZSBtb3RvciBuZXVyb24gaXMgaW5oaWJpdG9yeSAoYXMgeW91IGNhbiB0ZWxsIGJ5IHRoZSAmIzgyMjA7LSYjODIyMTsgc2lnbiBhdCB0aGUgc3luYXBzZSku[Qq]

[c]IG5vIHJldHJhY3Rpb24gb2YgdGhlIGV5ZXN0YWxrIGlmIHRoZSBzZW5zb3J5IGFuZCBpbmhpYml0b3J5IG5lcnZlcyBhcmUgc3RpbXVsYXRlZCBhZnRlciBjdXR0aW5nIHRoZSBpbmhpYml0b3J5IG5lcnZlIGF0IHNpdGUgSy4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBJZiB0aGUgc2Vuc29yeSBuZXJ2ZSBpcyBzdGltdWxhdGVkLCBpdCYjODIxNztzIGdvaW5nIHRvIHNlbmQgYW4gZXhjaXRhdG9yeSBpbXB1bHNlIHRvIHRoZSBtb3RvciBuZXJ2ZS4gSWYgdGhlIGluaGliaXRvcnkgbmVydmUgaXMgY3V0IGF0IEssIHRoZW4gYW55IGluaGliaXRvcnkgaW1wdWxzZSBzZW50IGZyb20gdGhhdCBuZXJ2ZSB3b24mIzgyMTc7dCBhcnJpdmUgYXQgdGhlIG1vdG9yIG5ldXJvbi4gQXMgYSByZXN1bHQsIHRoZSBzZW5zb3J5IG5lcnZlIHdpbGwgaW5kdWNlIHRoZSBtb3RvciBuZXVyb24gdG8gZmlyZSwgYW5kIHRoZSBleWVzdGFsayB3aWxsIHJldHJhY3Qu[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Biochemistry” dataset_id=”144Qs|9246c1b6d7f34″ question_number=”135″] Which of the following is responsible for holding water molecules together as they get pulled up through the stem of a plant?

[c]IHN1cmZhY2UgdGVuc2lvbg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLCBidXQgeW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIHRoaW5raW5nIGFib3V0IHRoaXMgdGhlIHJpZ2h0IHdheS4gU3VyZmFjZSB0ZW5zaW9uIGlzIHdoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBnZW5lcmF0aW5nIHNvbWUgb2YgdGhlIG5lZ2F0aXZlIHByZXNzdXJlIChhbHNvIGtub3duIGFzIHRlbnNpb24pIHRoYXQgc3Vja3Mgd2F0ZXIgdXAgZnJvbSB0aGUgcm9vdCwgdGhyb3VnaCB0aGUgc3RlbSwgYW5kIHVwIHRvIHRoZSBsZWF2ZS4gQnV0IHdoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBrZWVwaW5nIHRob3NlIHdhdGVyIG1vbGVjdWxlcyB0b2dldGhlcj8=[Qq]

[c]IGhlYXQgb2YgdmFwb3JpemF0aW9uLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZWF0IG9mIHZhcG9yaXphdGlvbiBpcyB0aGUgYW1vdW50IG9mIGVuZXJneSByZXF1aXJlZCB0byB0dXJuIGEgbGlxdWlkIGludG8gYSBnYXMuIFlvdSYjODIxNztyZSBsb29raW5nIGZvciB0aGUgbmFtZSBvZiB0aGUgaW50ZXJhY3Rpb24gYmV0d2VlbiB3YXRlciBtb2xlY3VsZXMgdGhhdCBrZWVwcyB0aGVtIGluIGFuIHVuYnJva2VuIGNoYWluIGFzIHRoZXkgZ2V0IHB1bGxlZCB1cCB0aGUgc3RlbSBkdXJpbmcgdHJhbnNwaXJhdGlvbi4=[Qq]

[c]IGNvaG VzaW9u[Qq]

[f]IEZhYnVsb3VzLiBUaGF0IGZvcmNlIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBrZWVwaW5nIHdhdGVyIG1vbGVjdWxlcyB0b2dldGhlciBpcyBjb2hlc2lvbi4=[Qq]

[c]IGFkaGVzaW9u[Qq]

[f]IE5vLsKgIEFkaGVzaW9uIGlzIHRoZSBmb3JjZSB0aGF0IGVuYWJsZXMgd2F0ZXIgbW9sZWN1bGVzIHRvIGFkaGVyZSB0byB0aGUgc2lkZXMgb2YgdGhlIHR1YmVzIHRoZXkmIzgyMTc7cmUgYmVpbmcgcHVsbGVkIHRocm91Z2guIFdoYXQgZm9yY2UgZW5hYmxlcyB0aGUgd2F0ZXIgbW9sZWN1bGVzIHRvIHN0aWNrIHRvZ2V0aGVyLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50OiB5b3UmIzgyMTc7cmUganVzdCBvbmUgc3lsbGFibGUgYXdheSBmcm9tIHRoZSBhbnN3ZXIu[Qq]

[c]IHRyYW5zcGlyYXRpb24=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUcmFuc3BpcmF0aW9uIGlzIHRoZSBwcm9jZXNzIHRoYXQgYWxsb3dzIG1vdmVzIHdhdGVyIHRocm91Z2ggcGxhbnRzLiBJdCBkZXBlbmRzIG9uIHRoZSBwcm9wZXJ0aWVzIG9mIHdhdGVyLCBhbmQgdGhlIHByb3BlcnR5IHRoYXQgeW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIGxvb2tpbmcgZm9yIGlzIHRoZcKgbmFtZSBvZiB0aGUgaW50ZXJhY3Rpb24gYmV0d2VlbiB3YXRlciBtb2xlY3VsZXMgdGhhdCBrZWVwcyB0aGVtIGluIGFuIHVuYnJva2VuIGNoYWluLg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Biochemistry” dataset_id=”144Qs|9238346c86f34″ question_number=”136″] The process of transpiration, which pulls water up from the roots through the plant’s stem and out through the leaves, only works because water molecules stay connected to the walls of xylem as they get pulled up through the stem of a plant. What’s the name for the force behind that connection.

[c]IGNvaGVzaW9u[Qq]

[f]IE5vLCBidXQgeW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIHZlcnkgY2xvc2UgKG9ubHkgYSBzeWxsYWJsZSBhd2F5KS4gQ29oZXNpb24gZGVzY3JpYmVzIGhvdyB3YXRlciBtb2xlY3VsZXMgc3RpY2sgdG8gb25lIGFub3RoZXIuIFdoYXQgZGVzY3JpYmVzIGhvdyB3YXRlciBzdGlja3MgdG8gb3RoZXIgbW9sZWN1bGVzPw==[Qq]

[c]IHN1cmZhY2UgdGVuc2lvbg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgdHdvIHRoaW5ncyB0byBrbm93IGFib3V0IHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24uIDEpIA==U3VyZmFjZSB0ZW5zaW9uIGlzIHdoYXQgaGFwcGVucyBhdCB0aGUgd2F0ZXIvYWlyIGludGVyZmFjZSBvZiBhIGJvZHkgb2Ygd2F0ZXIuIEl0JiM4MjE3O3MgdGhlIGZvcmNlIHRoYXQgbGV0cyB5b3UgZmxvYXQgYSBwYXBlcmNsaXAgb24gdGhlIHN1cmZhY2Ugb2YgYSBjdXAgb2Ygd2F0ZXIuIDIpIA==WHlsZW0=IGFyZSB0aGUgdGhpbiB0dWJlcyBpbiB0aGUgcm9vdHMsIHN0ZW1zLCBhbmQgbGVhdmVzIG9mIHBsYW50cyB0aHJvdWdoIHdoaWNoIHdhdGVyIGZsb3dzIHVwIGR1cmluZyB0cmFuc3BpcmF0aW9uLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgbG9va2luZyBmb3IgdGhlIG5hbWUgb2YgdGhlIHByb3BlcnR5IHRoYXQgZGVzY3JpYmVzIGhvdyB3YXRlciBtb2xlY3VsZXMgJiM4MjIwO3N0aWNrJiM4MjIxOyB0byBvdGhlciBwb2xhciBtb2xlY3VsZXMgKHN1Y2ggYXMgdGhvc2UgbWFraW5nIHVwIHRoZSB3YWxscyBvZiB0aGUgeHlsZW0pLg==[Qq]

[c]IGhlYXQgb2YgdmFwb3JpemF0aW9uLg==[Qq]

[f]IFNvcnJ5LCB0aGF0JiM4MjE3O3Mgbm90IGNvcnJlY3Qu[Qq]

[c]IGFkaG VzaW9u[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCEgQWRoZXNpb24gaXMgY29ycmVjdCEgV2F0ZXIgbW9sZWN1bGVzIGFkaGVyZSB0byB0aGUgd2FsbHMgb2YgdGhlIHh5bGVtIGR1cmluZyB0cmFuc3BpcmF0aW9uLiBBbG9uZyB3aXRoIGNvaGVzaW9uLCB0aGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgaG93IHRoZXNlIHdhdGVyIG1vbGVjdWxlcyBjYW4gZ2V0IHB1bGxlZCB1cCB0aGUgbGVuZ3RoIG9mIGEgcGxhbnQmIzgyMTc7cyBzdGVtLg==[Qq]

[c]IGV2YXBvcmF0aW9u[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBFdmFwb3JhdGlvbiBpcywgdWx0aW1hdGVseSwgZ2VuZXJhdGluZyB0aGUgdGVuc2lvbiB0aGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgcHVsbGluZyB3YXRlciBtb2xlY3VsZXMgdXAgdGhlIHN0ZW0gb2YgYSBwbGFudHMuIEJ1dCB5b3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgbG9va2luZyBmb3IgdGhlIG5hbWUgb2bCoHRoZSBwcm9wZXJ0eSB0aGF0IGRlc2NyaWJlcyBob3cgd2F0ZXIgbW9sZWN1bGVzICYjODIyMDtzdGljayYjODIyMTsgdG8gb3RoZXIgcG9sYXIgbW9sZWN1bGVzIChzdWNoIGFzIHRob3NlIG1ha2luZyB1cCB0aGUgd2FsbHMgb2YgdGhlIHh5bGVtKS4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Biochemistry” dataset_id=”144Qs|922981e177b34″ question_number=”137″] The beta-pleated sheet and alpha helix result from

[c]IGh5ZHJvZ2VuIGJvbmRzIHRoYXQgZm9ybSBiZXR3ZWVuIHRoZSBzaWRlIGNoYWlucyBvZiBub24tcG9sYXIgYW1pbm8gYWNpZHM=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBJbnRlcmFjdGlvbnMgYmV0d2VlbiBzaWRlIGNoYWlucyBhcmUgd2hhdCB1bmRlcmxpZSB0ZXJ0aWFyeSAodGhpcmQtbGV2ZWwpIHByb3RlaW4gc3RydWN0dXJlLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgbG9va2luZyBmb3IgdGhlIGludGVyYWN0aW9ucyB0aGF0IHVuZGVybGllIHNlY29uZGFyeSBzdHJ1Y3R1cmVzIChsaWtlIGJldGEtcGxlYXRlZCBzaGVldHMgYW5kIGFscGhhIGhlbGljZXMpLg==[Qq]

[c]IGh5ZHJvZ2VuIGJvbmRzIHRoYXQgZm9ybSBiZXR3ZWVuIHRoZSBOLUggYW5kIEM9Ty Bncm91cHMgb2YgYSBwcm90ZWluJiM4MjE3O3MgcG9seXBlcHRpZGUgYmFja2JvbmU=[Qq]

[f]IEZhYnVsb3VzISBIeWRyb2dlbiBib25kcyBiZXR3ZWVuIGFtaW5vIGFuZCBjYXJib255bCBncm91cHMgb2YgYSBwcm90ZWlucyBwb2x5cGVwdGlkZSBiYWNrYm9uZSBhcmUgd2hhdCBsZWFkIHRvwqBzZWNvbmRhcnkgc3RydWN0dXJlcyAobGlrZSBiZXRhLXBsZWF0ZWQgc2hlZXRzIGFuZCBhbHBoYSBoZWxpY2VzKS4=[Qq]

[c]IGh5ZHJvZ2VuIGJvbmRzIHRoYXQgZm9ybSBiZXR3ZWVuIHRoZSBzaWRlIGNoYWlucyBvZiBwb2xhciBhbWlubyBhY2lkcy4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgbG9va2luZyBmb3IgaHlkcm9nZW4gYm9uZHMsIGJ1dCBub3QgYmV0d2VlbiBzaWRlIGNoYWlucy4gV2hhdCBvdGhlciBwYXJ0cyBvZiBhIHBvbHlwZXB0aWRlIChhIGNoYWluIG9mIGFtaW5vIGFjaWRzKSBjb3VsZCBmb3JtIGh5ZHJvZ2VuIGJvbmRzIHdpdGggb25lIGFub3RoZXI/[Qq]

[c]IGlvbmljIGJvbmRzIHRoYXQgZm9ybSBiZXR3ZWVuIG9wcG9zaXRlbHkgY2hhcmdlZCBhbWlubyBhY2lkIHNpZGUgY2hhaW5z[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBJb25pYyBib25kcyBiZXR3ZWVuwqBvcHBvc2l0ZWx5IGNoYXJnZWQgYW1pbm8gYWNpZCBzaWRlIGNoYWlucyBhcmUgYSBmb3JjZSBpbnZvbHZlZCBpbiB0ZXJ0aWFyeSBwcm90ZWluIHN0cnVjdHVyZS4gWW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIGxvb2tpbmcgZm9yIHRoZSBpbnRlcmFjdGlvbnMgdGhhdCB1bmRlcmxpZSBzZWNvbmRhcnkgc3RydWN0dXJlcyAobGlrZSBiZXRhLXBsZWF0ZWQgc2hlZXRzIGFuZCBhbHBoYSBoZWxpY2VzKQ==[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Biochemistry” dataset_id=”144Qs|921a84d4ebf34″ question_number=”138″] Four different biological molecules are represented in the diagram below. Molecule A is glucose. Molecules B, C and D are composed of glucose subunits that are covalently linked together.

All of the molecules shown above are

[c]IGxpcGlkcw==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBJbiBhIGxpcGlkLCB5b3UgdHlwaWNhbGx5IHNlZSBhIGxvbmcgaHlkcm9jYXJib24gY2hhaW4uIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQ6IHRoaXMgaXMgYSBjbGFzcyBvZiBtYWNyb21vbGVjdWxlcyB0aGF0IGluY2x1ZGVzIG1vbm9zYWNjaGFyaWRlcyAobGlrZSB0aGUgZ2x1Y29zZSBzaG93biBhYm92ZSksIGRpc2FjY2hhcmlkZXMsIGFuZCBwb2x5c2FjY2hhcmlkZXMu[Qq]

[c]IHByb3RlaW5z[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBQcm90ZWlucyAoc3VjaCBhcyBveHlnZW4tY2FycnlpbmcgaGVtb2dsb2JpbiBvciB0aGUgY29udHJhY3RpbGUgcHJvdGVpbiBteW9zaW4pIGFyZSBwb2x5bWVycyBvZiBhbWlubyBhY2lkcy7CoEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQ6IHRoaXMgaXMgYSBjbGFzcyBvZiBtYWNyb21vbGVjdWxlcyB0aGF0IGluY2x1ZGVzIG1vbm9zYWNjaGFyaWRlcyAobGlrZSB0aGUgZ2x1Y29zZSBzaG93biBhYm92ZSksIGRpc2FjY2hhcmlkZXMsIGFuZCBwb2x5c2FjY2hhcmlkZXMu[Qq]

[c]IGNhcmJvaH lkcmF0ZXM=[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gQWxsIG9mIHRoZSBtb2xlY3VsZXMgc2hvd24gYWJvdmUgYXJlIGNhcmJvaHlkcmF0ZXMu[Qq]

[c]IG51Y2xlaWMgYWNpZHM=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBOdWNsZWljIGFjaWRzLCBzdWNoIGFzIEROQSBvciBSTkEsIGFyZSBwb2x5bWVycyBvZiBudWNsZW90aWRlcy4gSGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGEgaGludDogd2hhdCYjODIxNztzIHNob3duIGFib3ZlIGlzIGEgY2xhc3Mgb2YgbWFjcm9tb2xlY3VsZXMgdGhhdCBpbmNsdWRlcyBtb25vc2FjY2hhcmlkZXMgKGxpa2UgdGhlIGdsdWNvc2UgaW4gdGhlIGRpYWdyYW0pLCBkaXNhY2NoYXJpZGVzLCBhbmQgcG9seXNhY2NoYXJpZGVzLg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Biochemistry” dataset_id=”144Qs|920520a7ad334″ question_number=”139″] Four different biological molecules are represented in the diagram below. Molecule A is glucose. Molecules B, C and D are composed of glucose subunits that are covalently linked together.

Molecules “C” and “D” are

[c]IG1vbm9zYWNjaGFyaWRlcw==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBNb25vc2FjY2hhcmlkZXMgYXJlIHRoZSBtb25vbWVycyBvZiBjYXJib2h5ZHJhdGVzLiBUaGUgYXJlIHRoZSBzaW1wbGVzdCBvZiBzdWdhcnMsIGFuZCBjb25zaXN0IG9mIG9ubHkgb25lIG1vbm9tZXIuICYjODIyMDtDJiM4MjIxOyBhbmQgJiM4MjIwO0QmIzgyMjE7IGNvbnNpc3Qgb2YgbWFueSBzdWdhciBtb25vbWVycyBsaW5rZWQgdG9nZXRoZXIuIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQ6IHdoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyB0aGUgcHJlZml4IGZvciAmIzgyMjA7bWFueT8mIzgyMjE7[Qq]

[c]IGRpc2FjY2hhcmlkZXM=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBEaXNhY2NoYXJpZGVzIGFyZSBzdWdhcnMgdGhhdCBjb25zaXN0IG9mIHR3byBtb25vc2FjY2hhcmlkcyBsaW5rZWQgdG9nZXRoZXIsIGFzIGlzIHNob3duIGluICYjODIyMDtCLiYjODIyMTsmIzgyMjE7QyYjODIyMTsgYW5kICYjODIyMDtEJiM4MjIxOyBjb25zaXN0IG9mIG1hbnkgc3VnYXIgbW9ub21lcnMgbGlua2VkIHRvZ2V0aGVyLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50OiB3aGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgdGhlIHByZWZpeCBmb3IgJiM4MjIwO21hbnk/JiM4MjIxOw==[Qq]

[c]IHBvbHlzYWNj aGFyaWRlcw==[Qq]

[f]IENvcnJlY3QhIEMgYW5kIEQgYXJlIHBvbHlzYWNjaGFyaWRlcy4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Biochemistry” dataset_id=”144Qs|91f3850dc0f34″ question_number=”140″] Four different biological molecules are represented in the diagram below. Molecule A is glucose. Molecules B, C and D are composed of glucose subunits that are covalently linked together.

If molecule “C”  a) originates in a plant and b) consists of glucose monomers connected by bonds that allow that that molecule to be broken down by humans for energy, then that molecule must be

[c]IGNlbGx1bG9zZQ==[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IGdseWNvZ2Vu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBHbHljb2dlbiBpcyBhIHBvbHlzYWNjaGFyaWRlIHRoYXQgY2FuIGJlIGJyb2tlbiBkb3duIGJ5IGh1bWFucyBmb3IgZW5lcmd5LCBidXQgaXQgZG9lc24mIzgyMTc7dCBjb21lIGZyb20gcGxhbnRzLiBNYW1tYWxzIHN5bnRoZXNpemUgZ2x5Y29nZW4gd2hlbiB0aGV5IGVhdCBzdWdhciwgYW5kIHN0b3JlIGl0IGluIGxpdmVyIGFuZCBtdXNjbGUgdGlzc3VlIGZvciBsYXRlciB1c2UuIFdoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBhIHBvbHlzYWNjaGFyaWRlIG1hZGUgYnkgcGxhbnRzIHRoYXQgd2UgKGFuZCBvdGhlciBhbmltYWxzKSBjYW4gYnJlYWsgZG93biBmb3IgZW5lcmd5Pw==[Qq]

[c]IGFsYnVtaW4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBbGJ1bWluIGlzIGEgcHJvdGVpbiAoZm91bmQgaW4gZWdnIHdoaXRlLCBhbW9uZyBvdGhlciBwbGFjZXMpLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgbG9va2luZyBmb3IgYSBtb2xlY3VsZSB0aGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgYSBjYXJib2h5ZHJhdGUsIGFuZCBtb3JlIHNwZWNpZmljYWxseSwgYSBwb2x5c2FjY2hhcmlkZSBtYWRlIGJ5IHBsYW50cyB0aGF0IHdlIChhbmQgb3RoZXIgYW5pbWFscykgY2FuIGJyZWFrIGRvd24gZm9yIGVuZXJneT8=[Qq]

[c]IHN0YX JjaA==[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCE=[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Biochemistry” dataset_id=”144Qs|91e51d042e334″ question_number=”141″] Four different biological molecules are represented in the diagram below. Molecule A is glucose. Molecules B, C and D are composed of glucose subunits that are covalently linked together.

If molecule “C” were a component of plant cell walls, then it would most likely be

[c]IGNlbGx1 bG9zZQ==[Qq]

[f]IENvcnJlY3QhIENlbGx1bG9zZSBpcyB0aGUgcG9seXNhY2NoYXJpZGUgdGhhdCBtYWtlcyB1cCBwbGFudCBjZWxsIHdhbGxzLg==[Qq]

[c]IGdseWNvZ2Vu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBHbHljb2dlbiBpcyBhIHBvbHlzYWNjaGFyaWRlLCBidXQgb25lIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyB1c2VkIGZvciBlbmVyZ3kgc3RvcmFnZSBpbiBhbmltYWxzLg==[Qq]

[c]IGFsYnVtaW4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBbGJ1bWluIGlzIGEgcHJvdGVpbi4gWW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIGxvb2tpbmcgZm9yIGEgcG9seXNhY2NoYXJpZGUu[Qq]

[c]IHN0YXJjaA==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBTdGFyY2ggaXMgYSBwb2x5c2FjY2hhcmlkZSwgYnV0IG9uZSB0aGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgdXNlZCBmb3IgZW5lcmd5IHN0b3JhZ2UgaW4gcGxhbnRzLg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Biochemistry” dataset_id=”144Qs|91d6453860b34″ question_number=”142″] Four different biological molecules are represented in the diagram below. Molecule A is glucose. Molecules B, C and D are composed of glucose subunits that are covalently linked together.

The process most directly responsible for creating molecule A (glucose) is

[c]IGdseWNvbHlzaXM=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBHbHljb2x5c2lzIGlzIHRoZSBmaXJzdCBzdGVwIGluIGNlbGx1bGFyIHJlc3BpcmF0aW9uLCBhbmQgdGhlcmVmb3JlIGludm9sdmVkIGluIGJyZWFraW5nIGdsdWNvc2UgYXBhcnQgKGFzIG9wcG9zZWQgdG8gY3JlYXRpbmcgaXQpLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50OiB0aGUgcHJvY2VzcyBoYXBwZW5zIGluIHBsYW50cy4=[Qq]

[c]IHRoZSBrcmVicyBjeWNsZQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgTHJlYnMgY3ljbGUgaXMgb25lIG9mIHRoZSBtYWpvciByZWFjdGlvbnMgaW52b2x2ZWQgaW4gY2VsbHVsYXIgcmVzcGlyYXRpb24uIFRoYXQgbWFrZXMgaXQgbW9yZSBpbnZvbHZlZCBpbiBicmVha2luZyBnbHVjb3NlIGFwYXJ0IHRoYW4gYnVpbGRpbmcgaXQuwqBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50OiB0aGUgcHJvY2VzcyBoYXBwZW5zIGluIHBsYW50cy4=[Qq]

[c]IHRoZSBsaWdodCByZWFjdGlvbnMgb2YgcGhvdG9zeW50aGVzaXM=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLCBidXQgeW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIHZlcnkgY2xvc2UuIFRoZSBsaWdodCByZWFjdGlvbnMgY3JlYXRlIHRoZSBOQURQSCBhbmQgQVRQIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyByZXF1aXJlZCBmb3IgdGhlIG5leHQgcGhhc2Ugb2YgcGhvdG9zeW50aGVzaXMgdG8gdGFrZSBpbiBjYXJib24gZGlveGlkZSBhbmQgcmVkdWNlIGl0IHRvIGNhcmJvaHlkcmF0ZXMgc3VjaCBhcyBnbHVjb3NlLiBXaGF0IGlzIHRoYXQgbmV4dCBwaGFzZSBjYWxsZWQ/[Qq]

[c]IHRoZSBDYWx2 aW4gQ3ljbGU=[Qq]

[f]IE5pY2Ugam9iLiBUaGUgQ2FsdmluIGN5Y2xlLCBhbHNvIGNhbGxlZCB0aGUgbGlnaHQgaW5kZXBlbmRlbnQgcGhhc2Ugb2YgcGhvdG9zeW50aGVzaXMsIGlzIHRoZSBwcm9jZXNzIGRpcmVjdGx5IHJlc3BvbnNpYmxlIGZvciBjcmVhdGluZyBjYXJib2h5ZHJhdGVzIHN1Y2ggYSBnbHVjb3NlLg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Biochemistry” dataset_id=”144Qs|91c6b328dbf34″ question_number=”143″] The image below shows myoglobin, an oxygen-carrying globular protein found in the cytosol of muscle tissue. In globular proteins, one would expect to find

[c]IG9ubHkgaHlkcm9waG9iaWMgYW1pbm8gYWNpZHM=[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IG9ubHkgaHlkcm9waGlsaWMgYW1pbm8gYWNpZHM=[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IGh5ZHJvcGhvYmljIGFtaW5vIGFjaWRzIG9uIHRoZSBzdXJmYWNlIG9mIHRoZSBwcm90ZWlu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUga2V5IHRoaW5nIHRvIGZvY3VzIG9uIGhlcmUgaXMgdGhhdCB0aGlzIHByb3RlaW4gaXMgZ2xvYnVsYXIuIEdsb2J1bGFyIG1lYW5zIGxpa2UgYSBzcGhlcmUuIEluIGxpdmluZyBzeXN0ZW1zLCB3aGljaCBhcmUgd2F0ZXJ5LCB0aGF0IG1lYW5zIHRoYXQgdGhlIG91dHNpZGUgb2YgdGhlIHByb3RlaW4gd2lsbCBiZSBpbnRlcmFjdGluZyB3aXRoIHdhdGVyLCB3aGlsZSB0aGUgaW5zaWRlIGNvdWxkIGJlIChkZXBlbmRpbmcgb24gdGhlIHN0cnVjdHVyZSkgcmVsYXRpdmVseSB3YXRlciBmcmVlLiBIeWRyb3Bob2JpYyBhbWlubyBhY2lkcyB3b3VsZCB0ZW5kIHRvIGF2b2lkIHdhdGVyIChhbmQgbm90IGJlIG9uIHRoZSBvdXRzaWRlIG9mIHN1Y2ggYSBtb2xlY3VsZSkuIFdoYXQga2luZCBvZiBhbWlubyBhY2lkcyB3b3VsZCBtb3JlIGxpa2VseSBiZSBvbiB0aGUgb3V0c2lkZSBvZiBhIGdsb2J1bGFyIHByb3RlaW4u[Qq]

[c]IGh5ZHJvcGhpbGljIGFtaW5vIGFjaWRzIG9u IHRoZSBzdXJmYWNlIG9mIHRoZSBwcm90ZWlu[Qq]

[f]IEdyZWF0IGpvYi4gSW4gYSBnbG9idWxhciBwcm90ZWluLCB5b3UmIzgyMTc7ZCBtb3N0IGxpa2VseSBmaW5kIGh5ZHJvcGhpbGljIGFtaW5vIGFjaWRzIG9uIHRoZSBvdXRlciBzdXJmYWNlLCB3aGVyZSB0aGV5JiM4MjE3O2QgYmUgaW50ZXJhY3Rpbmcgd2l0aCB0aGUgc3Vycm91bmRpbmcgd2F0ZXIgbW9sZWN1bGVzLg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” multiple_choice=”true” unit=”Biochemistry” dataset_id=”144Qs|91b3334546734″ question_number=”144″] Amino acids differ from one another because

[c]IHRoZXkgaGF2ZSBzaWRlIGNoYWlucyB3aXRoIG Rpc3RpbmN0IGNoZW1pY2FsIHByb3BlcnRpZXMu[Qq]

[f]IENvcnJlY3QhIEFtaW5vIGFjaWRzIGFsbCBoYXZlIGEgY2VudHJhbCBjYXJib24sIGNvbm5lY3RlZCB0byBhbiBhbWlubyBncm91cCBhbmQgYSBjYXJib3h5bCBncm91cC4gVGhleSBkaWZmZXIgaW4gdGhlaXIgc2lkZSBjaGFpbnMu[Qq]

[c]IHNvbWUgaGF2ZSBncmVhdGVyIGNhdGFseXRpYyBhY3Rpdml0eSB0aGFuIG90aGVycy4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiA=RW56eW1lcw==LCB3aGljaCBhcmUgYWxtb3N0IGFsd2F5cyBtYWRlIG9mIGFtaW5vIGFjaWRzLCBkaWZmZXIgaW4gdGhlaXIgY2F0YWx5dGljIGFjdGl2aXR5LiBCdXQgYW1pbm8gYWNpZHMgZG9uJiM4MjE3O3QgcmVhbGx5IGhhdmUgY2F0YWx5dGljIGFjdGl2aXR5IG9uIHRoZWlyIG93bi4gTmV4dCB0aW1lIHlvdSBzZWUgdGhpcyBxdWVzdGlvbiwgdGhpbmsgYWJvdXQgdGhlIHN0cnVjdHVyZSBvZiBhbWlubyBhY2lkcy4=[Qq]

[c]IHNvbWUgaGF2ZSBtb3JlIHBob3NwaGF0ZSBncm91cHMgdGhhbiBvdGhlcnMu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBObyBwaG9zcGhhdGUgZ3JvdXBzIG9uIGFtaW5vIGFjaWRzLg==[Qq]

[c]IHNvbWUgaGF2ZSBtb3JlIGFtaW5vIGdyb3VwcyB0aGFuIG90aGVycy4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBFdmVyeSBhbWlubyBhY2lkIGhhcyBvbmUgYW1pbm8gZ3JvdXBzIChhbmQgb25lIGNhcmJveHlsIGdyb3VwKS4=[Qq]

[/qwiz]

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